El Cielo como Recurso Natural para el Astroturismo en Regiones Despobladas

AutorFrancisco Escario Sierra, Mª Victoria Sanagustín-Fons y Violante Martínez-Quintana
Cargo del AutorUniversidad de Zaragoza, España/Universidad de Zaragoza, España/Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, España
Páginas54-82
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−4/.−;,1/0#∗# τ# _Ζ# 601#08/,;,:0:−1# =5−# Ε3.?04#70./−#:−# −1/−# /,73#:−#/5.,1?3#
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69:−.−1#:−#,41/,/58,34−1#−4#601#=5−#540#:−#151#7.,48,706−1#Ε548,34−1#−1#60#Χ−1/,≅4#
,41/,/58,34−1#7[Φ6,801#,;0:01#=5−#3Ε.−8−4#7.3:58/31#/5.91/,831#.−608,340:31#
834#60#:,Ε51,≅4#:−#60#01/.343?90#−4#Γ.0Χ≅4∃#
!∃!+Σ∗+α(∋ΘΣ∗&∋#
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−6#04∆6,1,1#:−6#01/.3/5.,1?3#83?3#54#,41/.5?−4/3#=5−#834/.,Φ5
5/,6,208,≅4#:−#54#.−85.13#
/−..,/3.,06#−4:≅Χ−43#
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&4# 60# 08/506,:0:# Γ.0Χ≅4# 43# 15Ε.−# 54# 7.3Φ6−?0#Χ.0;−# :−# 834/0?,408,≅4#
65?94,80>#−6#8,−63#0.0Χ34∴1#7.−1−4/0#801,#−4#15#/3/06,:0:#051−48,0#:−#−1/−#/,73#:−#
834/0?,408,≅4#:−Φ,:3# 0#60#:−173Φ608,≅4# 60#8348−4/.08,≅4#:−# 60#73Φ608,≅4#
08/506#13Φ.−#/3:3#−4#υ0.0Χ320>#63806,2∆4:31−#60#834/0?,408,≅4#65?94,80#−4#631#
7.,48,706−1#4[86−31#5.Φ0431>#−17−8,06?−4/−#−4#60#807,/06#0.0Χ34−10# 2340#
7−.,5.Φ040∃#Σ/.3#Ε08/3.#834:,8,3404/−#70.0#73:−.#:−10..3660.#−6#01/.3/5.,1?3#
−4# −17−8,06# 60# .−06,208,≅4# :−# 3Φ1−.;08,34−1# 01/.34≅?,801# −1# 60# 051−48,0# :−#
45Φ31,:0:#−4#−6#8,−63>#−4#Γ.0Χ≅4#−4834/.0?31#63806,208,34−1#834#54#7.3?−:,3#
:−#_⊥Ψ#:901#:−17−Ι0:31#06#0ϑ3∃#
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70./−#:−#&170ϑ0#83?3#:−1/,43#01/.3/5.91/,83>#−1#60#37,4,≅4#
−Η7−.,−48,0#01/.3/5.91/,80#:−#631#/5.,1/01#=5−#
:−#/5.,1?3#01/.34≅?,83#α0#&485−1/0#:−#∋0/,1Ε088,≅4#:−6#
Γ1/.3/5.,1/0# −4# Γ.0Χ≅4∃# +01,# 60# /3/06,:0:#:−# 631# /5.,1/01# =5−# 70./,8,70.34# −4#
08/,;,:0:−1# 01/.3/5.91/,801# −Η7.−10.34# 15# ,4/−.∴1#73.# .−7−/,.# −Η7−.,−48,0# − 4#
45−1/.0#83?54,:0:#ςβλθ#:−#631#−485−1/0:31Ζ>#3/3.Χ04:3#540#;063.08,≅4#?5
10/,1Ε08/3.,0#0#15#−Η7−.,−48,0#01/.3/5.91/,80#−4#45−1/.0#83?54,:0:∃#Γ#15#;−2#60#
,?0Χ−4#60#3Ε−./0#01/.3/5.91/,80#:−#Γ.0Χ≅4#−1#;063.0:0#:−#Ε3.?0#?5#
60#/3/06,:0:#:−#631#017−8/31#0406,20:31∃#
!7)8&57∋)#∋9∋):5#/%∀∋);∃0/%∃7)ぐ#⊥δ#
ΤΓςΓ!!ϑ:/≅78Ο6#Σ#Κ;9544://:#Κ;/#59>4:>≅489Ν:#;6#,45?Ο6#
&6# /5.,1?3# 01/.34≅?,83# 08/[0# 83?3# 54# 83?76−?−4/3# 70.0# .−1/3# :−#
7.3:58/31# /5.91/,831# =5−# Ε3.?04# 70./−# :−# 60# 3Ε−./0# /5.91/,80# :−# Γ.0Χ≅4∃# α0#
.−06,208,≅4#:−#60#?01#08/,;,:0:−1#01/.3/5.91/,801#−4#Β3.0.,3#438/5.43>#
7−.?,/−#06#/5.,1/0#83?76−/0.#15#−1/048,0#−4#−6#:−1/,43#−6−Χ,:3#834#60#.−06,208,≅4#
:−# 08/,;,:0:−1# :,Ε−.−4/−1# 0# 601# =5−# ?3/,;0.34# 15# ;,1,/0∃# α31# .−156/0:31#
3Φ/−4,:31#0# /.0;∴1#:−# α0#&485−1/0#:−# ∋0/,1Ε088,≅4#:−6# Γ1/.3/5.,1/0#−4# Γ.0Χ≅4#
0Φ0604# −1/0# 8348651,≅4># ?∆1# :−# 60# ?,/0:# :−# 631# 70./,8,704/−1# ς!∀θ# :−# 631#
−485−1/0:31Ζ#−4#−1/01#08/,;,:0:−1#/5.91/,801>#43#−6,Χ,−.34#60#.−06,208,≅4#:−#−1/−#
/,73# :−# /5.,1?3# 83?3# 7.,48,706# ?3/,;3# :−# ;,1,/0# 0# 45−1/.0# .−Χ,≅4∃# &6#
01/.3/5.,1?3#75−:−#7.−1−4/0.1−#83?3#540#378,≅4#/5.91/,80#?∆1>#834/.,Φ5
0#83?76−/0.#60#3Ε−./0#08/506#−4#:−/−.?,40:31#/−..,/3.,31]#75:,−4:3#834;−./,.1−#
−4# −6# 7.,48,706# 0/.08/,;3# /5.91/,83# −4# −6# Ε5/5.3∃# Σ/.01#;0.,0Φ6−1# 8341,:−.0:01#
,?73./04/−1>#8504:3#1−#0406,20# −6#01/.3/5.,1?3# 83?3#54#7.3:58/3#=5−#75−:−#
83?76−?−4/0.#60#3Ε−./0#/5.91/,80#08/506#:−#Γ.0Χ≅4>#134#60#:5.08,≅4#:−#60#;,1,/0#
631# 7.3:58/31#
04∆6,1,1#:−#−1/01#;0.,0Φ6−1#431#?5−1/.0#83?3#540#Χ.04#?0−1/−#/,73#:−#
/5.,1/01#7−.438/04#−4#Γ.0Χ≅4#ςδ_θ#:−#631#−485−1/0:31Ζ>#,485..,−4:3#−4#801,#60#
/3/06,:0:#:−6#/5.,1/0#−4#Χ01/31#:−#063Ι0?,−4/3∃#Γ6#?,1?3#/,−?73>#631#7.,48,706−1#
7.3:58/31#/5.91/,831# 0:=5,.,:31#:5.04/−# 60#−1/048,0#:−# 631#/5.,1/01# −4#Γ.0Χ≅4#
134# −6# 83415?3# :−# 1−.;,8,31# Χ01/.34≅?,831# ςβ>_Ξθ# :−# 60# −485−1/0# 0# 631#
−485−1/0:31Ζ>#019#83?3#60# 70./,8,708,≅4#−4# 3/.01#08/,;,:0:−1# :−#38,3# ς∀Ψθ#:−#
631#−485−1/0:31Ζ>#601# 83?7.01# ςΞλ>ΨΞθ#:−# 631# −485−1/0:31Ζ# :−#
7.3:58/31#/97,831#:−#Γ.0Χ≅4#ςΞδ>ΨΞθ#:−#631#−485−1/0:31Ζ∃#
&;3658,≅4#:−#60#:−?04:0#:−#01/.3/5.,1?3#−4#Γ.0Χ≅4Κ#−6#01/.3/5.,1?3#−1/∆#
−4#05Χ−#/04/3# −4# Γ.0Χ≅4#83?3#−4# −6# .−1/3# :−6#?54:3∃#∋−# −1/∆# :−10..36604:3#
83?3# 540# Ε3.?0# :−# /5.,1?3# =5−# 1−# 0:07/0# 0# 60# :−?04:0# :−# 08/,;,:0:−1#
0?Φ,−4/06?−4/−# 131/−4,Φ6−1#73 .# 70./−# :−6# /5.,1/0#08/506∃# # α0# −;3658,≅4# :−# 60#
:−?04:0#−4#45−1/.0#.−Χ,≅4#?5−1/.0#=5−#631#/5.,1/01#70./,8,704#80:0#;−2#?∆1#−4#
−1/−# /,73# :−# 08/,;,:0:−1>#
08/,;,:0:−1# 83?3# 60# ?3/,;08,≅4# 7.,48,706#:−# 15# ;,1,/ 0# 3# 73.# 3/.0# ?3/,;08,≅4#
:,1/,4/0∃#&4#8504/3#0#60#7.38−:−48,0#:−#631#01/.3/5.,1/01>#60#?0
45−1/.3#7091>#:−1/0804:3#631#/5.,1/01#:−6#7.37,3#Γ.0Χ≅4>#+0/065ϑ0#,:0:#
:−# )0:.,:∃# Μ0?Φ,∴4# 73:−?31# −4834/.0.# /5.,1/01# ,4/−.408,3406−1# =5−# −6,Χ−4#
Γ.0Χ≅4# 83?3# :−1/,43# /5.91/,83# 70.0# 601# 08/,;,:0:−1# 01/.3/5.91/,801># −1/31#
/5.,1/01# 7.38−:−4# 7.,48,706?−4/−# :−# ϕ.048,0># 054=5−# /0?Φ,∴4# 73:−?31#
−4834/.0.#/5.,1/01#:−#7091−1#?∆1#6−Ι0431#83?3#631#χ091−1#Λ0Ι31#%−,43#(4,:3∃#
⊥λ#!∀#∃%&∋()∗+(),∃−∃./∀01−()2+3+)4)2∃%01−56()3∃#
&1/−#,48.−?−4/3#:−#60#:−?04:0#Β0#1,/50:3#0#Γ.0Χ≅4#83?3#543#:−#631#:−1/,431#
834136,:0:31>#−4#−6#=5−#−6#01/.3/5.,1?3#1−#Β0#0Ε,0420:3#
.−Ε−.−4/−#:−4/.3#:−6#/−..,/3.,3#−170ϑ36∃#
&;3658,≅4# :−# 60# 3Ε−./0# :−# 01/.3/5.,1?3# −4# Γ.0Χ≅4Κ# −6# 05?−4/3# :−# 60#
:−?04:0# −1/∆# 73/−48,04:3# 0# 15# ;−2#−6# :−10..3663# :−# 60# 3Ε−./0# 01/.3/5.91/,80#
0.0Χ34−10∃#&6#/5.,1/0#/,−4−#60#731,Φ,6,:0:#:−#.−06,20.#−1/−#/,73#:−#08/,;,:0:−1#−4#
8506=5,−.# ∴7380# :−6# 0ϑ3∃# Γ8/506?−4/−# 60# 3Ε−./0# 01/.3/5.91/,80# −1/∆# 1,:3#
:−10..3660:0#73.#7.3#834#−6#3ΦΙ−/,;3#:−#0/.0−.#0#−1/−#
45−;3# /,73# :−# /5.,1/01∃# α0# 3Ε−./0# :−# 01/.3/5.,1?3# 1−# −Η/,−4:−# 0# 601# /.−1#
7.3;,48,01# 0.0Χ34−101# 7−.?,/,−4:3# 06# /5.,1/0# −4834/.0.# 08/,;,:0:−1#
01/.3/5.91/,801# −4# 8506=5,−.# 7.3;,48,0# :−# −1/0# .−Χ,≅4∃# χ3.# 3/.3# 60:3># −1/−#
8.−8,?,−4/3#:−#60# :−?04:0# Β0# 7.37,8,0:3# 06#:−10..3663#:−# 45−;31# 7.3
3.,−4/0:31#0#,48.−?−4/0.#60#3Ε−./0#≅4>#83?3#α0#+,5:0:#:−#
601#&1/.−6601#−4#60#χ.3;,48,0#:−#µ5−180>#+31?3Φ.,Χ0#−4#60#χ.3;,48,0#:−#υ0.0Χ320#
3#Α06∆8/,80#−4#60#χ.3;,48,0#:−#Μ−.5−6∃#α0#−;3658,≅4#:−6#01/.3/5.,1?3#−4#Γ.0Χ≅4#
1−#8−4/.0#−4#60#Φ[1=5−:0#:−#8−./,Ε,808,34−1#:−#806,:0:#:−6#8,−63#−1/.−660:3>#−1/31#
.−83438,?,−4/31#134#,4/−.7.−/0:31#73.#−6#/5.,1/0#83?3#Χ0.04/90#:−#54#8,−63#6,Φ.−#
:−#834/0?,408,≅4#65?94,80∃##
ΤΓΩΓ!1;9;9>578:65/8Χ578Ο6#Κ;#/5#Κ;Ν56Κ5#>≅4Α9>875#;6#,45?Ο6#
α0#66−Χ0:0#:−#/5.,1/01#0#45−1/.0#.−Χ,≅4#1−#8348−4/.0#−4#631#?−1−1#:−#Ι56,3>#
0Χ31/3#:−#54#/,73#:−#/5.,1?3#=5−#1−#Φ010#−4#−6#513#
:−6#8,−63#83?3#7.,48,706#.−85.13#70.0#15#.−06,208,≅4>#7−.?,/−#3Ε.−8−.#06#/5.,1/0#
08/,;,:0:−1# ,443;0:3.01# :5.04/−# /3:3# −6# 0ϑ3∃# &1/−# /,73# :−# /5.,1?3# 0/.0−# 0#
45−;31# 1−Χ?−4/31# :−# 60# 73Φ608,≅4># =5−# ?∆1# /,−4−4#6,Φ−./0:# 70.0# −6−Χ,.# 151#
7−.,3:31#:−#38,3>#83?3#7−.13401#:−#60#/−.8−.0#−:0:>#Ι≅;−4−1#3#70.−Ι01#1,4#Β,Ι31∃#
&1/31#/5.,1/01#=5−#7−./−4−8−4#0#45−;31#1−Χ?−4/31#:−#60#73Φ608,≅4#
8506=5,−.# ∴7380# :−6# 0ϑ3# 0# 631# :,Ε−.−4/−1# :−1/,431#01/.3/5.91/,831# :−# Γ.0Χ≅4>#
7.37,8,04:3#=5−#1−#75−:04#−4834/.0.#:−1/,431#834136,:0:31∃#α31#7.,48,706−1#
:−1/,431# 01/.3/5.91/,831# −4# Γ.0Χ≅4# 1−# −485−4/.04#−4# 60# 8,5:0:# :−# µ5−180># 0#
/.0;∴1#:−#15# 8−4/.3#01/.34≅?,83#−4#:−/−.?,40:31#754/31#:−# 60#χ.3;,48,0#:−#
Μ−.5−6># −17−8,06?−4/−# 0# 0=5−6631# 7−./−4−8,−4/−1# 0# 601# 83?0.801# =5−# Β04#
0731/0:3#73.#3Φ/−4−.#806,:0:#8−./,Ε,808,34−1#:−#8,−63#−1/.−660:3∃#
ΤΓΤΓ!1;9;Λ≅8/8Ε48:9#Κ;Ν:?4ΞΜ87:9#Σ#>;448>:485/;9#
α0#66−Χ0:0#:−#01/.3/5.,1/01#0#63#60.Χ3#:−6#0ϑ3#Χ−4−.0#45−;01#373./54,:0:−1#
60Φ3.06−1∃# &1/−# 45−;3#/, 73#:−# −?76−31# .−608,340:31# 834# 60# :,;56Χ08,≅4# :−# 60#
01/.343?90# # −1/∆4# −Η−4/31# :−# 631# 017−8/31#?∆1#
!7)8&57∋)#∋9∋):5#/%∀∋);∃0/%∃7)ぐ#⊥β#
7.−80.,31#0138,0:31#06# −?76−3# /5.91/,83# 83?3#134# 60# −18010# 8506,Ε,808,≅4#
/−?73.06,:0:>#Χ−4−.04:3# 45−;01#373./54,:0:−1# 70.0# 601#73Φ608,34−1# 63806−1∃#
µ3−4#:90# −1/31# /.0Φ0Ι31# 134# 85Φ,−./31# ?0 ?,−?Φ.31# :−#
Χ.5731#01/.34≅?,831>#7−.3#−4#−6# Ε5/5.3#60# 73Φ608,≅4#63806# =5−#−1/∴#,4/−.−10:0#
73:.∆#,483.73.0.1−#0#−1/−#/,73#:−#/.0Φ0Ι31#:−Φ,:3#06#05?−4/3#:−#60#:−?04:0#:−#
−1/31#7−.Ε,6−1#70.0#:−10..3660.#7.3:58/31#01/.3/5.91/,831∃#Γ#15#;−2>#−6#Χ01/3#−4#
=5−# ,485..−# −6# /5.,1/0# −4# 3/.3# /,73# :−# 7.3:58/31#
,4:,.−8/3#=5−# 83?76−?−4/0.∆#06# 8.−0:3# :,.−8/0?−4/−#73.# −6#01/.3/5.,1?3∃#α0#
8.−08,≅4# :−# −?76−3# −4# /3.43# 06# /5.,1?3# 01/.34≅?,83# /0?Φ,∴4# 7.−1−4/0# 54#
83?734−4/−#138,06>#?31/.∆4:31−#83?3#540# 373./54,:0:#70.0#=5−#631#Ι≅;−4−1#
:−#631# :−1/,431# 01/.3/5.91/,831#/−4Χ04#540# 106,:0# 7.3Ε−1,3406#=5−# 6−1# 7−.?,/0#
7−.?04−8−.#−4#15#?54,8,7,3∃##
&1/−#Β−8Β3#731,Φ,6,/0#−6#.−Χ.−13# :−#3/.31# Β0Φ,/04/−1#:−#−1/31# 65Χ0.−1>#=5−#
70./,−.34#−4#Φ5180#:−#373./54,:0:−1#0#3/.31#754/31#:−4/.3#
Τ−1:−#631#3.Χ04,1?31#7[Φ6,831#:−:,80:31#06#:−10..3663#/5.91/,83#−4#Γ.0Χ≅4#−1/−#
05Χ−#/04/3#0#4,;−6#05/34≅?,83#83?3#0#4,;−6#Χ63Φ06>#=5−#−1/∆#−Η7−.,?−4/04:3#−6#
01/.3/5.,1?3#−1#;,1/3#83?3#540#373./54,:0:#70.0#−6#:−10..3663#138,3−834≅?,83#
:−#601#23401#.5.06−1#:−#Γ.0Χ≅4>#−1/31#/−..,/3.,31#85−4/04#834#5401#834:,8,34−1#
Ε0;3.0Φ6−1# 70.0# −6# :−10..3663#:−# −1/−# /,73# :−# /5.,1?3∃# Γ# 60# Β3.0# :−# /3?0.# 60#
,4,8,0/,;0# −4# −6# Ε3?−4/3# :−6# /5.,1?3# 01/.34≅?,83# :−4/.3# −4# −6# /−..,/3.,3#
0.0Χ34∴1># −6# Α3Φ,−.43# Γ5/34≅?,83# Β0# 80/063Χ0:3#−# ,4865,:3# −6# 01/.3/5.,1?3#
83?3#54#/,73# :−#/5.,1?3#,443;0:3.# /−4:,−4:3#0#−?−.Χ−4/−#:−4/.3#:−#15#7604#
:−#−Η8−6−48,0#/5.91/,80#;,Χ−4/−#:−1:−#7.,48,7,01#:−6#0ϑ3#ΞΨ_⊥#Β01/0#Ε,406−1#:−6#
0ϑ3# ΞΨΞΨ∃# α0# ,48651,≅4# :−6# 01/.3/5.,1?3# :−4/.3# :−# −1/−# 7604# :−# −Η8−6−48,0#
/5.91/,80>#43#1−#Β0#;,1/3#.−1706:0:0#834#540#7604,Ε,808,≅4#
540#Β3Ι0#:−# .5/0#70.0#−6#:−10..3663#−1/−#/,73#:−#/5.,1?3∃# &6#
Α3Φ,−.43# :−# Γ.0Χ≅4# /−490# 7.35−1/0# −4#
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0.0Χ34∴1># 1,4# −?Φ.0Χ3># 08/506?−4/−# 1363# −1/∆# −4# Ε548,340?,−4/3# −6# +−4/.3#
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8.−−?31#=5−#1−#:−Φ−4#:−#66−;0.#0#80Φ3#54#834Ι54/3#:−#7.3Χ.0?01#7−:0Χ≅Χ,831#
3.,−4/0:31#0#60#Ε3.?08,≅4# 60#,?73./048,0#:−#60#01/.343?90#
−4#60#138,−:0:#75−:−#1−.#15#073./08,≅4#0#60# ;,:0#:,0.,0#:−#601#7−.13401>#
−1/31#7.3Χ.0?01#7−:0Χ≅Χ,831#:−Φ−.904#:−#0Χ.570.1−#−4#631#1,Χ5,−4/−1##Χ.5731Κ#
≅−#−4∃Β∃ −!)&! 5∗!∗(9∋−#−ΒΧ∗Κ# 85.131#:−# Ε3.?08,≅4#13Φ.−# 60#01/.343?90#
:−1/,40:31# 0# 7[Φ6,831#:−# :,Ε−.−4/−1# −:0:−1#
/−?∆/,801#=5−#7−.?,/04# 83438−.# 3ΦΙ−/31# 01/.34≅?,831# =5−# Ε3.?04#70./−#:−6#
8,−63>#631#,41/.5?−4/31#70.0#73:−.#3Φ1−.;0.631>#/∴84,801#83?3#60#01/.3Ε3/3Χ.0Ε90#
01/.343?90∃#
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85∆6#Β0#1,:3# −1# 60# 073./08,≅4#:−#60#3Φ1−.;08,≅4# :−6# 8,−63# 60#,4;−1/,Χ08,≅4#
01/.34≅?,80#−4# ∆?Φ,/31# 83?3# 60# 856/5.0>#60#8,−48,0# 60# /−84363Χ90># 019# 83?3#
Ε0?,6,0.,20.# 06# 7[Φ6,83# Χ−4−.06# 834# 631# Φ−4−Ε,8,31#=5−# 15734−4# 601# ?,1,34−1#
0−.3−1708,06−1#=5−#0#7.,3.,#15−6−4#80/063Χ0.1−#83?3#54#Χ01/3#,44−8−10.,3∃#
Γ−∋Β∗4∃7#! 1∋−Ε&(∃−#∗5&(! ∗(9∋−96∋∃(Β−Κ# 70.0# =5−# −1/−# /,73# :−# /5.,1?3#
Φ010:3#−4# 60#:,;56Χ08,≅4# :−#60# 01/.343?90#1−# :−10..366−#834#∴Η,/3>#543#:−# 631#
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=5−# 1−# −480.Χ04# :−# ,?70./,.# 601# 08/,;,:0:−1# 01/.3/5.91/,801∃# &1/0#
.−173410Φ,6,:0:# .−80−# −4# Γ.0Χ≅4# 801,# −4# 60# /3/06,:0:# −4# 631# ?,−?Φ.31# :−#
0Χ.5708,34−1# 01/.34≅?,801# 631# 8506−1# 134# 631# −480.Χ0:31# :−# Χ5,0.# −1/01#
08/,;,:0:−1∃# χ0.0# ,?75610.# −6# :−10..3663# −.Ε,6−1#
7.3Ε−1,3406−1# 7.3734−?31# =5−# :−1:−# 631# :,1/,4/31# 3.Χ04,1?31# 7[Φ6,831# :−#
Γ.0Χ≅4#1−#3Ε−./−4#85.131#Ε3.?0/,;31#70.0#,41/.5,.#0#−1/−#/,73#:−#7.3Ε−1,3406−1∃#
(4#−Ι−?763#:−#−1/−#/,73#:−#Ε3.?08,≅4>#134#631#85.131#:−# )34,/3.#Γ1/.34≅?,83#
=5−#3Ε.−8−#60#ϕ54:08,≅4#∋/0.6,ΧΒ/∃##δ∃∃#ΜΘ+1#
Γ#60# Β3.0# :−# 83?−.8,06,20.# 0# :,1731,8,≅4# :−6#/5.,1/0#−6# 73/−48,06#
01/.3/5.91/,83# :−# Γ.0Χ≅4# 601# ΜΘ+1# 75−:−4# Ι5Χ0.# 54#707−6# Ε54:0?−4/06# −4# 60#
7.3?38,≅4#:−#−1/−#/,73#:−#/5.,1?3#0#/.0;∴1#:−#540#760/0Ε3.?0#;,./506#[4,80>#540#
Ν−Φ# 0# 60# 8506# 1−# 75−:−# 088−:−.# :−1:−# 8506=5,−.# :,1731,/,;3# 834# 088−13# 0#
δ⊥#!∀#∃%&∋()∗+(),∃−∃./∀01−()2+3+)4)2∃%01−56()3∃#
,4/−.4−/∃#α0# ,4Ε3.?08,≅4# 1−.;,8,31#=5−# 3Ε.−280#−1/0# 7∆Χ,40#Ν−Φ# 06#/5.,1/0#1−#
:−Φ−.∆#0Χ.570.#−4#601#1,Χ5,−4/−1#1−88,34−1Κ#
Η∗1∗! )&! 4∗5∃)∗)! )&5! 4∃&5−! #−496∋#−! )&! Φ∋∗,7#Κ# 540# ;−2# ?−:,:0# 60#
834/0?,408,≅4#65?94,80#:−# −Η,1/−4/−#−4# −6#/−..,/3.,3# 0.0Χ34∴1#1−#−1/0.∆#−4#
:,1731,8,≅4#:−# 3Ε.−8−.# 54# ?070#:−/0660:3#−4# −6# =5−# 1−#?5−1/.−1#631# ?−Ι3.−1#
:−1/,431# 70.0# 3Φ1−.;0.# −6# 8,−63# 438/5.43# /04/3# 73.# 85−4/0# 7.37,0# 83?3#
834/.0/04:3#54#Χ590#01/.3/5.91/,83#
ΙΕ&∋9∗! ∗(9∋−#7Β∃4∗! )&! Φ∋∗,7#Κ# 734−.# 0# :,1731,8,≅4# :−6# /5.,1/0# 60# 3Ε−./0#
01/.3#/5.91/,80#−Η,1/−4/−#−4#Γ.0Χ≅4#8601,Ε,80:0#73.#/,73#:−#08/,;,:0:>#63806,208,≅4#
# 3Ε.−8,−4:3# 0# 15# ;−2# 60# 731,Φ,6,:0:# :−# 834/.0/0.#
08/,;,:0:−1#01/.3/5.91/,801#:−1:−#−1/0#760/0Ε3.?0∃#
ϑ∋&%∃(∃7#! Β&9&−∋−57,∃4∗Κ# 7.3431/,83# 08/506,20:3# :−# 8506−1# ;04# 0# 1−.# 601#
834:,8,34−1# ?−/−3.36≅Χ,801# =5−# 1−# ;04# 0# −4834/.0.# 631# 01/.3/5.,1/01# −4# −6#
:−1/,43#=5−#Β04#−6−Χ,:3#70.0#.−06,20.#08/,;,:0:−1#:−#/5.,1?3#01/.34≅?,83∃#
≅∃&5−!)&5! )Χ∗Κ#)31/0.# 8506#−1# −6#8,−63#:−6# :90>#=5−# 3ΦΙ−/31#01/.34≅?,831# 1−#
75−:−4#3Φ1−.;0.∃#&4# 60# 08/506,:0:# −Η,1/−4# 076,808,34−1# =5−# 7.373.8,3404#
−1/0# ,4Ε3.?08,≅4# 0# 4,;−6# Χ63Φ06# 83?3# 73.# −Ι−?763# −6# 7.3Χ.0?0# ∋/−60.,5?##
ς∋/−660.,5?#Γ1/.343?
0Ε&ΒΚ∋∃)&(! ∗(9∋−#7Β∃4∗(Κ# 806−4:0.,3# −4# −6# =5−# 1−# .−83Ι04# 631# −;−4/31#
01/.34≅?,831#=5−#/,−4−4#65Χ0.#:5.04/−#80:0#0ϑ3>#0Χ.570:31#73.#601#−1/08,34−1#
01/.34≅?,801#01/.3/5.91/,831#:−#Γ.0Χ≅4#3.Χ04,204#
08/,;,:0:−1#−4/3.43#0#−6631∃#
Φ(9∋−96∋∃(Β−/!96∋∃(Β−!(−(9∃Α5&Κ#?31/.0.#8506−1#−1/∆4#1,−4:3#601#,4,8,0/,;01#
=5−#1−#−1/∆4#:−10..36604:3#−4#Γ.0Χ≅4#70.0# 60#7.3/−88,≅4#:−6#8,−63#151#
−Ε−8/31# 4−Χ0/,;31># 019# 83?3# 734−.# 0# :,1731,8,≅4# :−6# 5150.,3# 540# 6,1/0# :−#
,4:,808,34−1#70.0# =5−# 601#08/,;,:0:−1#01/.3/5.91/,801# 1−#:−10..366−4#:−# Ε3.?0#
131/−4,Φ6−#−4#Γ.0Χ≅4>#,4865 :−#.−83?−4:08,34−1#70.0#.−:58,.#60#
834/0?,408,≅4#65?94,80#
Γ−∋Β∗4∃7#! ∆! 1∋−,∋∗Β∗(! 1&)∗,7,∃4−(Κ# 734−.# 0# :,1731,8,≅4# :−6# ;,1,/04/−#
7.3Χ.0?01#:−#Ε3.?08,≅4#:−1/,40:31#0#Ε3?−4/0.#−6#,4/−.∴1# 73.#60#01/.343?90#
3/.01#?0/−.,01#.−608,340:01# 834#−1/0#8,−48,0#−4#−6# 7[Φ6,83#Χ−4−.06>#0Χ.5704:3#
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#
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ΨΓςΓ!&Μ;4>5#59>4:>≅4Α9>875#;6#,45?Ο6#
χ0.0#83?76−/0.#601#7.375−1/01#:−#08/508,≅4#=5−#834/.,Φ5
3Ε−./0# 01/.3/5.91/,80# −4# Γ.0Χ≅4# 431# Χ51/0.90# 7.3734−.# −6# :−10..3663# :−# 601#
1,Χ5,−4/−1# ,4,8,0/,;01# =5−# 0#
.−83432804# −6# −1Ε5−.23# 73.# 60# .−:588,≅4# :−# 60# 834/0?,408,≅4# 65?94,80>#
0731/04:3#73.#54#.−85.13#−4:≅Χ−43#3∃#
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&4#60#08/506,:0:#−Η,1/−#60#731,Φ,6,:0:#:−#8341−Χ5,.#8−./,Ε,808,34−1#3/3.Χ0:01#
73.# 3.Χ04,208,34−1# ,4/−.408,3406−1# 1,4# ∆4,?3# :−# 658.3# 83?3# 60# ϕ54:08,≅4#
∋/0.6,ΧΒ/># ΘΤΓ#
834/0?,408,≅4# 65?94,80#
834/0?,408,≅4#65?94,80∃#&1/01# 8−./,Ε,808,34−1#834/.,Φ5 :−10..3663#:−#54#
/,73#:−#/5.,1?3#131/−4,Φ6−#=5−#1−#:−10..3660#−4#/3.43#0#60#3Φ1−.;08,≅4#:−6#8,−63>#
83?3#−1#−6#/5.,1?3#01/.34≅?,83>#08/504:3#0#15#;−2#83?3#.−860?3#70.0#−6#/5.,1/0#
=5−#Φ5180# 8,−631# :−#806,:0:# 70.0# :,1Ε.5/0.#:−# 08/,;,:0:−1# .−608,340:01#834# 60#
01/.343?90∃# Τ−1:−# 601# ,41/,/58,34−1# 7[Φ6,801# 1−# :−Φ−.904# :−# 073
7.3−4#Γ.0Χ≅4#70.0#60# 3Φ/−48,≅4#:−#631#:,1/,4/31#/,731#
:−# 8−./,Ε,808,34−1# −Η,1/−4/−1#
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;!Η∃∋∗)−∋&(!&(9&5∗∋&(!!
Θ4,8,0/,;0#=5−#
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.−1/3#:−#?54,8,7,31#5Φ,80:31#−4#23401#.5.06−1# :−#Γ.0Χ≅4#=5−#3Ε.−8−4#8,−631#
:−#806,:0:>#08−.804:3# 019# −6#83438,?,−4/3#13Φ.−# −6# 8,−63#−1/.−660:3#/04/3# 0# 60#
73Φ608,≅4#63806#83?3#0#631#/5.,1/01∃#
#
#
#
#
#
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3:>:Γ#!Θ;ΝΙ/:#Κ;#Ν845Κ:4#;9>;/54#
#
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−6Π70.0,13Π:−6Π01/.3/5.,1?3κ#ςΞΨ_βΖ#
;!≅∃6)∗)&(!&(9∋&55∗)∗(!
#χ34−.#−4#?0.8Β0#−4#Γ.0Χ≅4#54#7.3Χ.0?0#=5−#1−#01−?−Ι−#−4#15#3ΦΙ−/,;3#06#
η,66−1#−/# η,660Χ5−1# &/3,6∴1#:−10..3660:3#−4# ϕ.048,0#73.#60# Γ138,08,≅4# ∗08,3406#
70.0#60#χ.3/−88,≅4#:−6#+,−63#/.0;∴1#:−6#
8506# 1−# .−83438−# 0# 631# ?54,8,7,31# =5−# 5/,6,204# 60# 652# 0./,Ε,8,06# :−# Ε3.?0#
131/−4,Φ6−># 834/.,Φ5:3# 019# 60#
3Φ1−.;08,≅4# :−6# 8,−63# −1/.−660:3∃# α01# :,1/,48,34−1# =5−# 1−# 3/3.Χ04# 0# −1/01#
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4,;−6−1# :−# 754/508,≅4># .−7.−1−4/04:3#540# −1/.−660# −6# 4,;−6# ?∆1# Φ0Ι3#
−1/.−6601# −6# 4,;−6# ?∆1# 06/3># 60# ?∆Η,?0# 806,Ε,808,≅4># ?−:,04/−# −1/0# ?−:,:0# 1−#
.−83438−#−6#83?7.3?,13#:−#60#73Φ608,≅4#63806#73.#60#131/−4,Φ,6,:0:#
:−6#8,−63#70.0#60#7.∆8/,80#:−6#01/.3/5.,1?3∃##
3:>:#ΥΓ##=8//;9#;>#=8//5?≅;9#!>:8/[9#
#
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#
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,65?,408,≅4# 0# /.0;∴1# :−# 652# 0./,Ε,8,06# −1/∆# −1/.,8/0?−4/−# 834/.360:3# −#
:−10..36604# ?−:,:01# 08/,;01# 70.0# −:580.#
834/0?,408,≅4# 65?94,80∃# &1/−# /,73# :−# 70.=5−1# 3Ε.−8−# 0# 631# ;,1,/04/−1# 60#
731,Φ,6,:0:#:−# 3Φ1−.;0.#631#0/.08/,;31# =5−#3Ε.−8−# −6# 8,−63#438/5.43# −1/.−660:3#
ς%3# ΞΨ_δΖ∃# α0# 5Φ,808,≅4# :−# −1/−# /,73#
,41/0608,34−1#−4#Γ.0Χ≅4#73:.90#−1/0.#:−1/,40:0#0#631#?54,8,7,31#?∆1#/5.91/,831>#
83?76−/04:3# 019# 60# 3Ε−./0# /5.91/,80# # 0:−?∆1# :−# 834/.,Φ5,.# 0# 60#
8348,−48,08,≅4# :−# 60# 73Φ608,≅4# 63806#
65?94,80∃#
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α0#/.041Ε3.?08,≅4#:−#54#.−85.13#40/5.06#−4#.−85.13#/5.91/,83#0#/.0;∴1#:−#60#
.−Χ5608,≅4#65?94,80#66−;0:0# 0#80Φ3#−4#−6#ΣΦ1−.;0/3.,3# Γ1/.34≅?,83#:−6#χ,8# :5#
),:,# −4# −6# χ,.,4−3# Ε.048∴1#
Θ4/−.408,3406# :−# +,−63# &1/.−660:3# ς%Θ+&Ζ# 3/3.Χ0:0# 73.# 60# Γ138,08,≅4#
Θ4/−.408,3406#:−#+,−63#Σ185.3#ςΘΤΓΖ>#1,.;−#:−#?3:−63#:−#Φ5−401#7.∆8/,801∃#&1/−#
7.3
λΨ#!∀#∃%&∋()∗+(),∃−∃./∀01−()2+3+)4)2∃%01−56()3∃#
−Η,1/−4/−#1−#Β0#834;−./,:3#−4#54#.−Ε−.−4/−#0#4,;−6#−5.37−3∃#&4#−6#8013#:−#Γ.0Χ≅4#
−6# :−10..3663# :−# 7.3
834/.,Φ5,.90#0#:,40?,20.#60#3Ε−./0#/5.91/,80#:−#−1/0#2340#=5−#1−#;−./−Φ.0#−4#/3.43#
0#631#:−73./−1#:−#?34/0ϑ0∃#
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+34#−6#3ΦΙ−/,;3#:−#−Η/−4:−.#60#:5.08,≅4#:−#60#−1/048,0#:−# 631#01/.3/5.,1/01#
−4# 45−1/.0# 83?54,:0:># 540# ,4,8,0/,;0# 70.0# ,48−4/,;0.# 60# .−06,208,≅4# :−#
08/,;,:0:−1#01/.3/5.91/,801#−4#Γ.0Χ≅4#1−.90#60#75Φ6,808,≅4#:−#540#Χ590#=5−#.−83Ι0#
631#65Χ0.−1#7.37,8,31#70.0#60#.−06,208,≅4#:−#3Φ1−.;08,34−1#438/5.401#−4#45−1/.0#
83?54,:0:># 60# 3Ε−./0# 08/506# :−# 08/,;,:0:−1# 01/.3/5.91/,801># 019# 83?3# −6#
70/.,?34,3#01/.34≅?,83#/04Χ,Φ6−#−#,4/04Χ,Φ6−#:−#Γ.0Χ≅4∃#
#
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04:#?040Χ−?−4/#Β04:Φ33Ο>#1/.∃#λ⊥∃βΞ∃##
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