Empleo de metodologías mixtas en encuestas de seguridad ciudadana: El caso de la ola 9 del panel ciudadano para la investigación social en Andalucía (PACIS)

AutorRafaela Sotomayor Lozano
Páginas79-89
%.(!/0+,∋
&3(+&,∋#&∋3&/,#,+,−!.2∋3∃]/.2∋&∀∋&∀%0&2/.2∋#&∋2&−0)∃#.#∋
%∃0#.#.∀.α∋&+∋%.2,∋#&∋+.∋,+.∋β∋#&+∋(.∀&+∋%∃0#.#.∀,∋(.).∋+.∋
∃∀Χ&2/∃−.%∃∗∀∋2,%∃.+∋&∀∋.∀#.+0%!.∋⊥(.%∃2_
67!89:;9+
Β∃#)(#3∗Ν∃(&,#1∗(#,)∋0∃,∀,#.−∋0,#,03∗,∀#0∋+#∗+,#:(&&,2∃(+3,#/(#2(3∋/∋∀∋6Μ,#
/(#(+0∗()3,# (),#)(&Μ,# )∃+#/∗/,# ∀,#(+0∗()3,# ∋+∀∃+(8#9,)# ∃+/∗)3&∃,)#/(#()3∗/∃∋)#/(#
2(&0,/∋# 4# ∋−∃+∃5+# ,)Μ# ∀∋# 0∋+;∃&2,+Υ# (+# >?∆ϑ# %,)3,+3(# 27)# /(# ∀,# 2∃3,/# /(# ∀, #
;,03∗&,0∃5+# 3∋3,∀# /(# ∀,# &(0∋6∃/,# /(# /,3∋)# −&∋0(/(# /(# ∀,# (+0∗()3,# ∋+∀∃+(#
≅ΞΟ!ΠαΧΥ>?∆ϑΛ8#!)3,# (ς−,+)∃5+#/(# ∀,#(+0∗()3,# ∋+∀∃+(#0∋∃+0∃/(# 0∋+#∀,# /∃;∃0∗∀3,/#
0&(0∃(+3(# /(# ∀∋)# 2∋/∋)# /(# ,/2∃+∃)3&,0∃5+#3&,/∃0∃∋+,∀# ≅−&()(+0∃,∀# 4# 3(∀(;5+∃0∋Λ#
−,&,#0∋+)(6∗∃∗()3&,)#1∗(#0∗2−∀,+#0∋+#∗+∋)#()37+/,&()#,/(0∗,/∋)#/(#0,∀∃/,/#
0∋2∋# 0∋+)(0∗(+0∃,# /(# ∀∋)# 0,2%∃∋)# 3(0+∋∀56∃0∋)# 4# )∋0∃,∀()# −&∋/∗0∃/∋)# (+# ∀,)#
Ψ∀3∃2,)#/.0,/,)# ≅χ&∋Ν()#>?∆∆δ#Σ∗0λ(# 9(−λ∋ι)λ∃#>??ΓΛ8# !+# ()3(#0∋+3(ς3∋Υ# (∀#
2∋/∋#∋+∀∃+(# &()∗∀3,# 2∗4#,3&,03∃Ν∋# 3,+3∋#−∋(∀# %,Τ∋#0∋)3(#,)∋0∃,/∋# ,#∀,# ;,)(#/(#
&(0∋6∃/,#0∋2∋# −∋ )∗#&,−∃/( )∗# ,/(0∗,0∃5+#−,&,# 2(/∃ 3(273∃0,)#)(+)∃%∀()#
(+3&(#∋3&,)#0,&,03(&Μ)3∃0,)8#Β∃+#(2%,&6∋Υ#:∋4#−∋:∋4Υ#(∀#2∋/∋#∋+∀∃+(#−&()(+3,#∗+#
∃2−∋&3,+3(# ∃+0∋+Ν(+∃(+3(# 1∗(# 3∃(+(# 1∗(# Ν( 0∋+# ∀,# ;,∀3,# /(# 0∋%(&3∗&,#/(# ()3,#
3(0+∋∀∋6Μ,#(+#∀,# −∋%∀,0∃5+# 6(+(&,∀# 4#0∋+#∀,# ∃+(ς∃)3(+0∃,# /(# ∗+#2,&0∋#2∗()3&,∀#
,−&∋−∃,/∋#1∗(#−(&2∃3,#∀,#,−∀∃0,0∃5+#/(#3.0+∃0,)#/(#2∗()3&(∋#−&∋%,%∃∀Μ)3∃0∋#(+#∀,)#
1∗(#)(# %,),#∀,# 2(3∋/∋∀∋6Μ,#/(#(+0∗()3,)# ≅Α,∀∀(6,&∋#∃&( ∗+9#>?∆Ιδ#Α,∀∀(6,&∋# ∃&( ∗+9Χ(
>?∆ΗΛ8##
Σ&,/∃0∃∋+,∀2(+3(Υ#(∀#/∃)(=∋#/(#−,+(∀#)(#Ν(+Μ,#(2−∀(,+/∋#−,&,#/,&()−∗()3,#
,#,1∗(∀∀∋)#∋%Τ(3∃Ν∋)#/(# ∃+Ν()3∃6,0∃5+#(+#∀∋)#1∗(# ∀,#(Ν∋∀∗0∃5+#(+#(∀# 3∃(2−∋#()#∗+,#
Ν,&∃,%∀(#/(3(&2∃+,+3(#≅()3∗/∃∋)#∀∋+6∃3∗/∃+,∀()Λ8#!+#∀,#,03∗,∀∃/,/Υ#)∃+#(2%,&6∋Υ#)(#
()37#&(0∗&&∃(+/∋#0,/,#Ν(∋%Τ(3∃Ν∋#/(#/,
&()−∗()3,#,#∀∋)#/∋)#−&∃+0∃−,∀()#−&∋%∀(2,)#)(=,∀,/∋)#,+3(&∃∋&2(+3(φ#∀,#/∃;∃0∗∀3,/#
0&(0∃(+3(# −,&,# 0∋+3,03, 4# ,)(6∗&, ∀,# −,&3∃0∃−,0∃5+# (+# ∀,)# (+0∗()3,)# 4# (∀#
0∋+)∃6∗∃(+3(#∃+0&(2(+3∋#/(#∀∋)#0∋)3()#/(#&(,∀∃(+0∗()3,#1∗(#0∗2−∀,#
0∋+#∗+∋)#&(1∗∃)∃3∋)#2Μ+∃2∋)#/(#0,∀∃/,/8#Α∋+3,∋+#∗+#−,+(∀#−(&2∃3(#&(,∀∃
6&,+# −,&3(# /(∀# 3&,%,Τ∋# /(# 0,2−∋# 2(/∃,+3(# (+0∗()3,)# ∋+∀∃+(Υ# 0∗4∋# 0∋)3(# /(#
(Τ(0∗0∃5+#()#)∃6+∃;∃0,3∃Ν,2(+3(# ∃+;(&∃∋ ,# ∋3&∋)#2∋/∋)Υ#4# /(/∃0, −,&3(# /(#()3(#
,:∋&&∋# ,# &(2∗+(&, ∀,# −,&3∃0∃−,0∃5+# (+# ∀,# (+0∗()3,Υ# 2(Τ∋&,+/∋# ,)Μ# ∀,# 3,),# /(#
&()−∗()3,# ∋%3(+∃/,# 4# ∋3&∋)# ∃+/∃0,/∋&()# /(# 0,∀∃/,/# /(# ∀∋)# /,3∋)8# Ρ()/(# ()3,#
−(&)−(03∃Ν,# (∀# −,+(∀# )(# 0∋+0∃%(# 0∋2∋# ∴∗+,# %,)(# /(# /,3∋)# /(# −∋3(+0∃,∀()#
(+0∗()3,/∋)#1∗(#/(0∀,&,+#1∗(#()37+#∃+3(&(),/∋)#(+#0∋∋−(&,(+#;∗3∗&,)#&(0∋6∃/,)#
/(#/,3∋)#(+#(∀#0,)∋#(+#1∗(#&()∗∀3(+#)(∀(00∃∋+,/∋)]#≅Α,∀∀(6,&∋#∃&(∗+9#>?∆ΙΛ8#
ΛΟ!∗2Π28>2!⊥;?;≅2Φ;4!,;!
!
!+#>?∆ΙΥ# 3&,)#∗+,# −&∃2(&,#;,)(# /(#Ν,∀∋&,0∃5+# /(#∀,)# ,∀3(&+,3∃Ν,)#(ς∃)3(+3()#
−,&,#(∀#∗)∋# /(# ∀,# (+0∗()3,# ∋+∀∃+(# (+#2∗()3&,)#&(−&()(+3,3∃Ν,)# /(# ∀,# −∋%∀,0∃5+#
6(+(&,∀Υ# (∀# Π+)3∃3∗3∋# /(# !)3∗/∃∋)# Β∋0∃,∀()# ΞΝ,+ΦΑΒΠΑΥ# −&()(+35# ∗+#
−&∋4(03∋#−,&,#∀,# −∗()3,#(+#2,&0:,#/(#∗+#−,+(∀#−&∋%,%∃∀Μ)3∃0∋#&(−&()(+3,3∃Ν∋# /(#
∀,# −∋%∀,0∃5+# ,+/,∀∗?∆Ι# )(# −∗)∋# (+# 2,&0:,# (∀#
−&∋0()∋#/(#0,−3,0∃5+# /(# ∀∋)# :∋6,&()#1∗(#;∋&2,&Μ,+# −,&3(# /(∀# Κ,+(∀#Α∃∗/,/,+∋#
−,&,#∀,#Π+Ν()3∃6,0∃5+# Β∋0∃,∀# (+# Ξ+/,∀∗0Μ,# ≅ΚΞΑΠΒΛ8#!)3(#−&∋0()∋# 0∋+0∀∗45# (+# (∀#
)(6∗+/∋# 3&∃2()3&(# /(# >?∆Η# 0∋+# ∗+# 3∋3,∀# /(# Ω8ΩϑΓ# −(&)∋+,)# ∃+)0&∃3,)#
−(&3(+(0∃(+3()#,# >8ν∆∆#:∋6,&()# &(−&()(+3,3∃Ν∋)#/(#∀∋)#:∋6,&()#,+/,∀∗0()8# !+#(∀#
,=∋#>?∆ΓΥ#)(# &(;&()05# (∀# −,+(∀# ,=,/∃(+/∋#+∗(Ν∋)# :∋6,&()# ,∀# 2,&0∋# ΚΞΑΠΒ8#9∋)#
(+3&(Ν∃)3,/∋)# )(∀(00∃∋+,/∋)# /(# ∀,# 2∗()3&,# 2,&0∋# 1∗(# −,&3∃0∃−,+# (+# 0,/,# ∋∀,#
&(0∃%(+# ∗+,# 6&,3∃;∃0,0∃5+# /(# Η# (∗&∋)# 0∋2∋# ,6&,/(0∃2∃(+3∋# (# ∃+0(+3∃Ν∋# −∋ )∗#
−,&3∃0∃−,0∃5+Υ#1∗(#−∗(/(+#,0(−3,&(0∃%∃(+#)∗)#/∋2∃0∃∀∃∋)#∋#/∋+,,#∗+,#ΧΟχ#/(#
)∗#(∀(00∃5+#(+3&(#∀,)#−&∋−∗()3,)#≅Α&∗/∃∋#,2%∃(+3(Υ#07+0(&Υ#Α7&∃3,)}Λ8#
?7!+
!∀#(Τ(#−&∃+0∃−,∀#/(#()3(#3&,%,Τ∋#0∋+)∃)3(#(+#−&()(+3,,∀6∗+,)#0∗&∃∋)∃/,/()#(+#
(∀#∗)∋#/(#2(3∋/∋∀∋6Μ,)# 2∃ς3,)#,−∀∃0,/,)#,#(+0∗()3,)# )∋%&(#)(6∗&∃/,/#0∃∗/,/,+,Υ#
0∋+0&(3,2(+3(#∀,#+∋Ν(+,#∋∀,#/(∀#ΚΞΑΠΒΥ#0∋∋&/∃+,/,#−∋(∀#(1∗∃−∋#/(#∃+Ν()3∃6,0∃5+#
/∃&∃6∃/∋# −∋ ∀,# Ρ&,8# α(&0(/()# Α,2,&(&∋# ≅[ΚΧΛ# 4# &(,∀∃
!)3∗/∃∋)# Ξ−∀∃0,/∋)# ≅[Σ!ΞΛΥ# ∗+∃/,/# /(# )(&Ν∃0∃∋)# /(# 0,&703( 3&,+)Ν(&),∀Υ# 1∗(#
/(),&&∋∀∀,#)∗#3&,%,Τ∋#(+# (∀#Π+)3∃3∗3∋#/(#!)3∗/∃∋)#Β∋0∃,∀()#ΞΝ,+ΦΑΒΠΑΛ8#
Ξ)ΜΥ#∀,)#−&5ς∃2,)#−76∃+,)#/()0&∃%(+#(∀#−&∋0()∋#)(6∗∃/∋#(+#∀,#−∗()3,#(+#2,&0:,#/(∀#
3&,%,Τ∋#/(#0,2−∋φ#2(3∋/∋∀∋6Μ,#(2−∀(,/,Υ# ∀,#()3&,3(6∃,# ∗),/,#−,&,#6,&,+3∃
0∋%(&3∗&,#/(#∀,#−∋%∀,0∃5+# +∋#∗)∗,&∃,#/(#Π+3(&+(3Υ#∀,)#2∋/∃;∃0,0∃∋+()#,−∀∃0,/,)#,∀#
0∗()3∃∋+,&∃∋#−,&,#)∗#,/,−3,0∃5+#,∀#2∋/∋#/(#(+0∗()3,0∃5+Υ#4#;∃+,∀2(+3(#∀∋)#−(&;∃∀()#
2∗()3&,∀()#,3(+/∃(+/∋#,∀#2∋/∋#/(#,/2∃+∃)3&,0∃5+#/(#0∗()3∃∋+,&∃∋8##
Φ7!;≅Β∀Α:∆=+
5616!.>≅9Κ:=>∋Ω9:=Η=ΦΑΛ;Κ=>
9,# 2∗()3&,# :,# )∃/∋# )(∀(00∃∋+,/,# (+3&(# ∀∋)# ∃+/∃Ν∃/∗∋)# (2−,/&∋+,/∋)# (+#
Ξ+/,∀∗0Μ,# 1∗(# ;∋&2,+# −,&3(# /(∀# 2,&0∋# 2∗()3&,∀# ΚΞΑΠΒ8# Α∋2∋# ()3&,3(6∃,# −,&,#
0∋&&(6∃∀,# ∃+;&,&&(−&()(+3,0∃5+# /(#∀,#−∋%∀,0∃5+# ,+/,∀∗ 1∗(#+∋# −∋)((# ,00()∋#,#
Π+3(&+(3Υ#)(#,−∗()3,#−∋∗+,#2(3∋/∋∀∋6Μ,#2∃ς3,Υ#∗3∃∀∃
−&(;(&(+3(#≅Α∋2−∗3( Ξ∃/(/# ζ(%#Π+3(&Ν∃(ι∃+6Υ# (+#,/(∀,+3(#ΑΞζΠΛ# 4#∀,# (+0∗()3,#
3(∀(;5+∃0,# ≅Α∋2−∗3(&ΦΞ))∃)3(/# Σ(∀(−:∋+()# Π+3(&Ν∃(ι∃+6Υ# (+# ,/(∀,+3(# ΑΞΣΠΛ# −,&,#
(+3&(Ν∃)3,,#,1∗(∀∀∋)# ∃+/∃Ν∃/∗∋)#1∗(#+∋# 3∃(+(+#,00()∋#,# Π+3(&+(38#Β(#0∋+3,03,#0∋+#
∀∋)# )∗Τ(3∋)# )(∀(00∃∋+,/∋)# ,#3&,Ν.)# /(# /∃)3∃+3∋)# 0,+,∀()φ# 0∋&&(∋# (∀(03&5+∃0∋Υ# ΒαΒΥ#
0∋+3,03∋# 3(∀(;5+∃0∋# 4# 0,&3,# −∋)3,∀# −,&,# 0∋2∗+∃0, (∀# 0∋2∃(+
(+0∗()3,# 4# (∀# (+ΝΜ∋# /(# 0∀,Ν()# −(&)∋+,∀()# /(# ,00()∋δ# (+# (∀# 0,)∋# /(# ∀,# 2∗()3&,#
3(∀(;5+∃0,#−,&,#∀,#&(,∀∃
/(∀#0∗()3∃∋+,&∃∋#)(#&(,∀∃&+(3Υ#,00(/∃(+/∋#2(/∃,+3(#0∀,Ν(#−(&)∋+,∀#,#∗+,#
−76∃+,# ι(%# ≅ΑΞζΠΛΥ# ∋# 2(/∃,+3(# (+3&(Ν∃)3,)# 3(∀(;5+∃0,# ≅ΑΞΣΠΛΥ# &(,∀∃
∋≅ς>8;!Α8!≅8?;Α;>;Β529!≅(]?29!81!81:789?29!Α8!98Β74(Α2Α!:(7Α2Α212Θ!Λ∆!
Ψ∀3∃2,)#(+#∀,)#∃+)3,∀,0∃∋+()#/(#∀,#(2−&(),#ΠΡ!Ξ_Ξ#Β98#Ξ∀6∗+∋)#∃+3(6&,+3()#:,+#)∃/∋#
0∋+3,03,/∋)#−∋Ν,&∃∋)#0,+,∀()#)(6Ψ+#,Ν,+/(#0,2−∋8#Κ,&,#0∋+)(6∗∃
∀,#2∗()3&,# /(#νΩϑ# (+3&(Ν∃)3,)#)(# )(∀(00∃∋+,&∋+#>8>?># −(&)∋+,)#0∋2−∋+(+3()# /(∀#
ΚΞΑΠΒΥ#∀∋#1∗(#&(−&()(+3,#∗+,#3,),#/(#&()−∗()3,#/(∀#ΩνΥ∆8#
!+# 0∗,+3∋# ,∀# 3∃−∋# /(# 2∗()3&(∋# )(# :,# ∗3∃∀∃
()3&,3∃;∃0,/,#−∋&∗−∋)# /(# (/,/# 4#)(ς∋# /(# ∀∋)# ∃+3(6&,+3()#/(∀#ΚΞΑΠΒΥ# )∃(+/∋# ∀∋)#
()3&,3∋)#−&∋−∋&0∃∋+,∀()#,#∀,#−∋%∀,0∃5+#,+/,∀∗∋)8#
_()−(03∋#,#∀,#&(−&()(+3,3∃Ν∃/,/#/(# ∀∋)#/,3∋)#4#/,/∋#1∗(#∀,# 2∗()3&,#,∀0,+
&()∗∀3,# +∋# )( −&∋−∋&0∃∋+,∀# ,# ∀,# −∋%∀,0∃5+# ,+/,∀∗
0,∀0∗∀,/∋#∗+,#Ν,&∃,%∀(#/(#0,∀∃%&,0∃5+Υ# ,3(+/∃(+/∋#,∀#2.3∋/∋#&,λ∃+6Υ#,#−,&3∃/(#∀,)#
Ν,&∃,%∀()#)(ς∋#4#(/,/Υ#−∋∗+#∀,/∋Υ#+∃Ν(∀#/(#()3∗/∃∋)#−∋∋3&∋Υ#4#3,2,=∋#/(#−∋%∀,0∃5+#
2∗+∃0∃−,∀#−∋∋3&∋Υ#3∋2,+/∋#0∋2∋#&(;(&(+0∃,#∀∋)#3∋3,∀()#−∋%∀,0∃∋+,∀()#,+/,∀∗0()8#
Ρ(#()3,#;∋&2,#∀,#2∗()3&,#1∗(/,#,Τ∗)3,/,Υ#(+#(),)#Ν,&∃,%∀()Υ#,#∀,#−∋%∀,0∃5+#,+/,∀∗
2,4∋/(#∆ν# ,=∋)8#Α∋+#(∀∀∋# )(#,)(6∗&,#∗+#(&&∋ 2∗()3&,∀#27ς∃2∋#/(#ΘγΦΩΥΙ#0∋+#
∗+#3,2,=∋#2∗()3&,∀# /(#νΩϑ#(+3&(Ν∃)3,)8#η∃+,∀2(+3(Υ#0∃3,∗(#(∀# 3∃(2−∋#2(/∃∋#/(#
/∗&,0∃5+#/(#∀,#(+3&(Ν∃)3,#)(#)∃3Ψ,#(+#∆Ε#2∃+∗3∋)8#
56Β6!%Μ9>:;=Ι∆Ε;=
Α∗,+/∋# )(# &(0∃%(# (+# (∀# Π!ΒΞΦΑΒΠΑ# (∀# 0∗()3∃∋+,&∃∋# )(# −∗/∋# 0∋2−&∋%, (∀#
2∃+∗0∃∋)∋# ()2(&∋# 4# ∀,# /(/∃0,0∃5+# /(∀# (1∗∃−∋# (+# ∀,# (∀,%∋&,0∃5+# /(∀# 2∃ )2∋Υ# ∀,)#
Ν,&∃,%∀()# ,# 2(/∃ 3&,/∗0∃/,)# ,# −&(6∗+3,)Υ# 0∗%&Μ,+# 0∋2−∀(3,2(+3(# (∀# ∀∃)3,/∋# /(#
∃+/∃0,/∋&()#−&∋−∗()3∋)8##
Ξ#2∋/∋#/(#&()∗2(+Υ#0,%(#/()3,0,∗(#−&()(+3,#∗+,#)(&∃(#/(#Μ3(2)#−,&,#2(/∃
Ν,&∃,%∀()# 1∗(# :,+# )∃/∋# ∃/(+3∃;∃0,/,)# 0∋2∋# −&(/∃03∋&()# /(∀# −∗+∃3∃Ν∃)2∋8# 9,#
Ν∃03∃2∃
∃+/∗03∋&,# /(# −∗+∃3∃Ν∃)2∋Υ# 4# −,&,# (ς−∀∋&, ()3,# −∋)∃%∃∀∃/,/# )(# :,+# ∃+0∀∗∃/∋# /∋)#
∃+/∃0,/∋&()#/(# Ν∃03∃2∃!∀#2∃(/∋# ,∀#/(∀∃3∋# 3,2%∃.+# :,#)∃/∋# ()3∗/∃,/∋#0∋2∋#
−&(/∃03∋ /(# −∗+∃3∃Ν∃)2∋Υ# −∗()# ∀,)# −(&)∋+,)# 1∗(# 27)# ∃+)(6∗&∃/,/# )∃(+3(+# 0∋+#
&()−(03∋#,∀# /(∀∃3∋#3∃(+/(+# ,#2∋)3&,27)#,∀3∋)#+∃Ν(∀()#/(#−∗+∃3∃Ν∃)2∋8# Κ∋(∀∀∋# )(#
∃+0∀∗4(+#∗+#Μ3(2#/(#∀,#/∃2(+)∃5+#(2∋3∃Ν,#4#/∋)#/(#∀,#/∃2(+)∃5+# 0∋6+∃3∃Ν,#/(#()3(#
0∋+0(−3∋8#9,# ;,∀3,#/(# 0∋+;∃,+(+#∀,)# ∃+)3∃3∗0∃∋+()#/(∀# )∃)3(2,#−(+,∀# 3,2%∃.+#:,#
)∃/∋# &(∀,0∃∋+,/,# 0∋+# (∀# −∗+∃3∃Ν∃)2∋Υ# ,)ΜΥ# )(# ∃+0∀∗4(+# 3&()# Μ3(2)# 1∗(# 2∃/(+# ∀,#
0∋+;∃,+,#(+#0,/,#∗+,#/(#/∃0:,)#∃+)3∃3∗0∃∋+()#/(∀#
)∃)3(2,#−(+,∀8# 9,# %,3(&Μ,#/(# −&(6∗+3,)# −&∋−∗()3,#0∋+3∃(+(# Μ3(2)# 1∗(#2∃/(+# ∗+,#
)(&∃(#/(#,03∃3∗/()#4#0∋2−∋&3,2∃(+3∋)#1∗(#(+#∋0,)∃∋+()#)(#:,+#2∋)3&,/∋#,)∋0∃,/∋)#
,∀#−∗+∃3∃Ν∃)2∋8#Β(#∃+0∀∗4(#∗+,#−&(6∗+3,#,0(&0,#/(#∀,#,3&∃%∗0∃5+#/(#&()−∋+),%∃∀∃/,/#
1∗(#∀,# −(&)∋+,# :,0(#−,&,# 0∗,∀1∗∃( 0∋2−∋&3,2∃(+3∋8#Β(#0∗(+3,# 3,2%∃.+#0∋+#/∋)#
Μ3(2)# /(# ,03∃3∗/()# 27)# (ς−&()∃Ν,)# ,0(&0,Υ# &()−(03∃Ν,2(+3(Υ# /(∀# &(0:,
−&∋/∗0(#∀,#∃+2∃6&,0∃5+#(+#∀,#−(&)∋+,#(+0∗()3,/,#4# /(#∀,#/()0∋+;∃,+ 1∗(#)∗(∀(+#
2∋)3&, :,0∃,# ∀∋)# /(27)8# Σ,2%∃.+# )(# ∃+0∀∗4(+# 2(/∃/,)# /(# ∀,# (ς−∋)∃0∃5+# / (# ∀,#
−(&)∋+,#,#0∋+3(+∃/∋)#/(∀∃03∃Ν∋)#(+#∀∋)#2(/∃∋)#/(#0∋2∗+∃0,0∃5+#4#/(#∀,# −(&0(−0∃5+#
1∗(# 3∃(+(# )∋%&(# ∀,# (Ν∋∀∗0∃5+# /(# ∀,# /(∀∃+0∗(+0∃,8# Κ∋ Ψ∀3∃2∋Υ# /∋)# Ν,&∃,%∀()#
/(2∋6&7;∃0,)#;∃Τ,)#/(∀#ΚΞΑΠΒ#Ζ,∗3∋∗%∃0,0∃5+#∃/(∋∀56∃0,#4#&(∀∃6∃5+Ζ#)∋+#∋%Τ(3∋#/(#
,+7∀∃)∃)8#Σ,2%∃.+#)(#∃+0∋&−∋&,+#/∋)#−&(6∗+3,)#Ζ&(0∗(&/∋#/(#Ν∋3∋#4#&(∀,0∃5+#Ν∋3∋Φ
ΛΕ!∗2Π28>2!⊥;?;≅2Φ;4!,;!
!
/∃)0∗&)∋#/(∀∃03∃Ν∋Ζ#1∗(# ∃+3(+3,+#0∋+(03, (∀# Ν∋3∋#0∋+# (∀#/∃)0∗&)∋#1∗(# (∀#−,&3∃/∋#
Ν∋3,/∋#:∃ (∀#/(∀∃3∋Υ#,:∋+/,+/∋#,)Μ#(+3&(#∀,#0∋+(ς∃5+#−∋∀Μ3∃0,Φ−∗+∃3∃Ν∃)2∋8#
!∀#&()3∋#/(#∀,)#Ν,&∃,%∀()#)∋0∃∋/(2∋6&7;∃0,)#;∃Τ,)#(+#(∀#ΚΞΑΠΒ#≅)(ς∋Υ#(/,/Υ#()3,/∋#0∃Ν∃∀Υ#
+∃Ν(∀# (/∗0,3∃Ν∋Υ# )∃3∗,0∃5+# ∀,%∋&,∀Υ# ∋0∗−,0∃5+# (# ∃+6&()∋)Λ# 3,2%∃.+# )(# :,+#
&(∀,0∃∋+,/∋#(+#,∀6∗+,#∋0,)∃5+#0∋+#(∀#−∗+∃3∃Ν∃)2∋8#
9,# 3,&(,# ,# &(,∀∃
,/,−3,0∃5+#−,&,# :,0(&∀∋#27)#;∗+0∃∋+,∀# ,#∀,)# 3.0+∃0,)# /(#,−∀∃0,0∃5+# ≅ΑΞζΠΦΑΞΣΠΛ8#
Κ∋ 0∃3, ,∀6∗+,)# Ν,&∃,0∃∋+()# /(∀# 0∗()3∃∋+,&∃∋# &()−(03∋# ,# ∀,# Ν(&)∃5+# ∋&∃6∃+,∀#
−∋/(2∋)#,3(+/(,#(Τ(2−∀∋)#0∋+0&(3∋)φ##
!+#(∀#0,)∋#/(#∀,#−&(6∗+3,#1∗(#;∃6∗&,#(+#)(6∗+/∋#∀∗6,(+#(∀#0∗()3∃∋+,&∃∋#≅Κ>ΛΥ#
∀,#&(;∋&2∗∀,0∃5+#/(#∀,#−&(6∗+3,#)(#:∃0∋+#(∀#−&∋−5)∃3∋#/(#;,0∃∀∃3,)∗#0∋2−&(+)∃5+Υ#
)∋%&(#3∋/∋Υ#,#∀∋)#(+3&(Ν∃)3,/∋)#1∗(#&(,∀∃∀,#2∋/,∀∃/,/#3(∀(;5+∃0,#
≅Σ,%∀,)#∆#4#>Λ8#
#
Ζ&6/&%93%υ0#Χ%γ5%
Κ>8# !+# )(6∗+/∋# ∀∗6,&Υ# ψ/5+/(# )(# )∃3∗,&Μ,# ∗)3(/# (+# ∀,# ()0,∀,# )∃# ,:∋&,# (∀# ?#
)∃6+∃;∃0,# 1∗(# τ∀∋)# 0∋2−∋&3,2∃(+3∋)# /(# ∀,)# −(&)∋+,)# )∋+# −&∋/∗03∋# /(# /(0∃)∃∋+()#
∃+/∃Ν∃/∗,∀()# 4# &,0∃∋+,∀()υ# 4# ∆?# 1∗(# τ∀∋)# 0∋2−∋&3,2∃(+3∋)# /(# ∀,)# −(&)∋+,)# )∋+#
−&∋/∗03∋#/(#;,03∋&()#)∋0∃,∀()#4#(0∋+52∃0∋)υω#
9∋)#0∋2−∋&3,2∃(+3∋)## # # 9∋)#0∋2−∋&3,2∃(+3∋)#
/(#∀,)#−(&)∋+,)#)∋+## # # /(#∀,)#−(&)∋+,)#)∋+#
−&∋/∗03∋#/(#/(0∃)∃∋+()######### # −&∋/∗03∋#/(#Ν,&∃∋)#;,03∋&()#
#########∃+/∃Ν∃/∗,∀()#4#&,0∃∋+,∀()## # #####)∋0∃,∀()#4#(0∋+52∃0∋)# #
########Ο8Β8##Ο8Α8#
######### #??#?∆#?>#?Ω#?Ι#?Η#?Ε#?Γ#?ν#?ϑ#∆?# ## #####ϑν#####ϑϑ#
Ζ&6/&%53%υ0#Χ%γ5%
Κ>8# !+# )(6∗+/∋# ∀∗6,&Υ# ψ/5+/(# )(# )∃3∗,&Μ,# ∗)3(/# (+# ∀,# ()0,∀,# )∃# ,:∋&,# (∀# ?#
)∃6+∃;∃0,#1∗(#∀,)# −(&)∋+,)#,03Ψ,+#)(6Ψ+#)∗)#/(0∃)∃∋+()#∃+/∃Ν∃/∗,∀()#4#∆?# 1∗(#∀,)#
−(&)∋+,)#,03Ψ,+#)(6Ψ+#)∗)#0∃&0∗+)3,+0∃,)#)∋0∃,∀()#4#(0∋+52∃0,)ω#
9,)#−(&)∋+,)#,03Ψ,+## # # 9,)#−(&)∋+,)#,03Ψ,+##
)(6Ψ+#)∗)#/(0∃)∃∋+()## # # )(6Ψ+#)∗)#0∃&0∗+)3,+0∃,)##
∃+/∃Ν∃/∗,∀()# # # # )∋0∃,∀()#4#(0∋+52∃0∋)##########
#######Ο8Β8##Ο8Α8#
######### #??#?∆#?>#?Ω#?Ι#?Η#?Ε#?Γ#?ν#?ϑ#∆?# ## #####ϑν#####ϑϑ#
#
9,#−&(6∗+3,#Κ∆?#/(∀#0∗()3∃∋+,&∃∋#3,2%∃.+#;∗(#2∋/∃;∃0,/,Υ#3,+3∋#(+#∀∋#&(;(&(+3(#
,# )∗# ∋&/(+# /(+3&∋# /(∀# 0∗()3∃∋+,&∃∋Υ# 0∋2∋# &()−(03∋# ,∀# (+;∋1∗(# )(27+3∃0∋# /(# )∗#
(+∗+0∃,/∋8# _()−(03∋# ,∀# ∋&/(+# )(# 3∋25# ∀,# /(0∃)∃5+# /(# 0∋∀∋0,&∀,Υ# ,3(+/∃(+/∋# ,# ∀,#
)(0∗(+0∃,# /(∀# 0∗()3∃∋+,&∃∋Υ# 0∋2∋# −&(6∗+3,# Ω# ≅ΚΩΛΥ# 4,# 1∗(# ,∀# 3&,3,&)(# /(# ∗+,#
−&(6∗+3,#)(+)∃%∀(#≅/(0∃)∃∋+()#,∀#(2∃3∃(∀#Ν∋3∋ΛΥ#−∋/&Μ,2∋)#0∋&&((∀#&∃()6∋#/(#1∗(#
∋≅ς>8;!Α8!≅8?;Α;>;Β529!≅(]?29!81!81:789?29!Α8!98Β74(Α2Α!:(7Α2Α212Θ!ΛΗ!
)(# Ν∃(&,# 0∋+3,2∃+,/,# −∋ ∀,# −&∋−∃,# 3(273∃0,# /(∀# 0∗()3∃∋+,&∃∋8# !+# &(∀,0∃5+# ,# ∀,#
)(27+3∃0,Υ# )(# 3&,35# /(# 1∗(# ∀∋)# &()−∋+/∃(+3()# 3∗Ν∃(&,+# (+# 2(+3(# ∗+# −&∋0()∋#
(∀(03∋&,∀#0∋+0&(3∋#≅!∀(00∃∋+()#χ(+(&,∀()#,∀#Α∋+6&()∋#/(#∀∋)#Ρ∃−∗3,/∋)Υ#>ν#/(#,%&∃∀#
>?∆ϑΛ#1∗(# ;,0∃∀∃3,#(∀# −&∋0()∋#/(# &(0∗(&/∋Υ#4#(+#∀∗6,/(#2(/∃∀,# ;&(0∗(+0∃,#(+# ∀,#
2,+(&,#/(# −(+),(+#∀,# /(∀∃+0∗(+0∃,#,+3(# ∗+#,03∋#0∋+0&(3∋Υ# )(#∋−35# −∋2(/∃∀,#
0,+3∃/,/Υ#()#/(0∃&Υ#(+#1∗.#2(/∃/,#≅2∗0:∋Υ#%,)3,+3(Υ#−∋0∋#∋#+,/,Λ#∀,#/(∀∃+0∗(+0∃,#()#
3(+∃/,#(+#0∗(+3,#,#∀,#:∋&,#/(#(2∃3∃(∀#Ν∋3∋#≅Σ,%∀,)#Ω#4#ΙΛ8##
#
Ζ&6/&%Μ3%υ0#Χ%γ98%
Κ∆?8#!+#6(+(&,∀Υ#,#∀,#:∋&,#/(#/(0∃/∃)∗#Ν∋3∋#(+#∗+,)#(∀(00∃∋+()Υ#ψ−∃(+),#∗)3(/#
(+#(∀#3(2,#/(#∀,#/(∀∃+0∗(+0∃,#)∃(2−&(Υ#,∀6∗+,)#Ν(0()#∋#+∗+0,ω#
#
#Β∃(2−&(# # # ∆#
#Ξ∀6∗+,)#Ν(0()# # ># # # # #
#Ο∗+0,# # # Ω##
#Ο8Β8# # # ν##
#Ο8Α8# # # ϑ#
Ζ&6/&%Γ3%υ0#Χ%γΜ%4γ98%#.%#/%−+#)0∀(.&7∀(%(7∀∗∀.&/Λ#
ΚΩ8# !+# ∀,)# Ψ∀3∃2,)# (∀(00∃∋+()# 6(+(&,∀()# ,∀# Α∋+6&()∋# /(# ∀∋)# Ρ∃−∗3,/∋)# /(∀#
−,),/∋#>ν#/(#,%&∃∀Υ#ψ3∗Ν∋#[/8#(+#0∗(+3,#(∀#3(2,#/(#∀,#/(∀∃+0∗(+0∃,#,#∀,#:∋&,#/(#Ν∋3,&ω#
#
#α∗0:∋## # Ι#
#µ,)3,+3(# # Ω#
#Κ∋0∋# # >#
#Ο,/,# # ∆#
#Ο8Β8# # νν#
#Ο8Α8# # ϑϑ#
#
Ρ(#∃6∗,∀#2∋/∋#)(#2∋/∃;∃05#∀,#)(27+3∃0,#/(∀#(+∗+0∃,/∋#/(#∀,#−&(6∗+3,#Κν#(+#(∀#
0∗()3∃∋+,&∃∋#∋&∃6∃+,∀Υ#3&,+);∋&27+/∋)(#(+#Κϑ#(+#(∀#0∗()3∃∋+,&∃∋#,−∀∃0,/∋#(+#0,2−∋8#
Β(#−(+)5#1∗(Υ# −,&,#2(/∃∗+# )(+3∃2∃(+3∋#0∋2∋#∀∋#()#(∀#2∃(/∋#,# )(ΝΜ03∃2,#/(# ∗+#
/(∀∃3∋Υ#&()∗∀3,#27)#,0(&3,/∋#:,%∀,/(#;&(0∗(+0∃,#0∋+#∀,#1∗(#)(#)∃(+3(#()(#2∃(/∋#(+#
∀∗6,/(#0,+3∃/,/#/(#∋0,)∃∋+()#(+#∀,)#1∗(#)(#:,#)(+3∃/∋#≅Σ,%∀,)#Η#4#ΕΛ8#
#
#
#
#
#
#
ΛΙ!∗2Π28>2!⊥;?;≅2Φ;4!,;!
!
Ζ&6/&%Ο3%υ0#Χ%γΠ%
Κν8#Ρ∗&,+3(#(∀#−,),/∋#,=∋Υ#ψ:,#)(+3∃/∋#∗)3(/#2∃(/∋#,#−∋/()(ΝΜ03∃2,#/(#∗+#
/(∀∃3∋ω#
#Ο∗+0,# # # ∆#
#[+,#∋#/∋)#Ν(0()# # >#
#!+3&(#3&()#4#)(∃)#Ν(0()# Ω#
#!+3&(#)∃(3(#4#/∋0(#Ν(0()# Ι#
#α7)#/(#∗+,#Ν(# Η#
#Ο8Β8# # # ν#
#Ο8Α8# # # ϑ#
Ζ&6/&%Θ3%υ0#Χ%γ:%4γΠ%#.%#/%−+#)0∀(.&7∀(%(7∀∗∀.&/Λ#
Κϑ8#Ρ∗&,+3(#(∀#−,),/∋#,=∋Υ#ψ:,#)(+3∃/∋#∗)3(/#2∃(/∋#,#−∋/()(ΝΜ03∃2,#/(#∗+#
/(∀∃3∋ω#
#α∗0:,#;&(0∗(+0∃,### Η#
#µ,)3,+3(#;&(0∗(+0∃,# Ι#
#Ξ∀6∗+,#;&(0∗(+0∃,##Ω#
#Κ∋0,#;&(0∗(+0∃,## # >#
#Ο∗+0,#∋#0,)∃#+∗+0,## ∆#
#Ο8Β8# # # νν#
#Ο8Α8# # # ϑϑ#
#
η∃+,∀2(+3(Υ# ∀,# %,3(&Μ,# /(# −&(6∗+3,)# 1∗(# )(# ∃+0∀∗4(+# (+# ∀,# Κ∆Ω# 3,2%∃.+# ;∗(#
∋%Τ(3∋#/(#&(Ν∃)∃5+8#!+#()3(#0,)∋#)(#0∃3,+#)5∀∋#,∀6∗+∋)#(Τ(2−∀∋)#/(#∀,#%,3(&Μ,#≅Σ,%∀,#
ΓΛφ#
#
Ζ&6/&%Ν3%υ0#Χ)%γ9Μ%
Κ∆Ω8∆8#π∗∃(+()# 0∋2(3(+#/(∀∃3∋)#/(%(+#&(0∃%∃0∋+/(+,)#27)#/∗&,)# 1∗(#∀,)# 1∗(#)(#
∃2−∋+(+#,03∗,∀2(+3(8##
Κ∆Ω8∆8#9,)#0∋+/(+,)#−,&,# 1∗∃(+()#0∋2(3(+#/(∀∃3∋)#/(%(&Μ,+#)()#/∗&,)#1∗(#∀,)#
1∗(#)(#∃2−∋+(+#,03∗,∀2(+3(8#
Κ∆Ω8>8#9,#;∋&2,# (+#1∗(#∀,#Τ∗)3∃0∃,#3&,3,#,#∀∋)#/(∀∃+0∗(+3()#Τ∗Ν(+∃∀()#≅(+3&(#∆Ι#4#∆Γ#
,=∋)Λ#()#/(2,)∃,/∋#%∀,+/,8##
Κ∆Ω8>8# 9,# Τ∗)3∃0∃,# 3&,3,# /(# ;∋&2,# /(2,)∃,/∋# %∀,+/,# ,# ∀∋)# /(∀∃+0∗(+3()# Τ∗Ν(+∃∀()#
≅(+3&(#∆Ι#4#∆Γ#,=∋)Λ##
Κ∆Ω8Ω8#9,#−(+,#−&(Ν∃)3,#(+#(∀#Α5/∃6∋#Κ(+,∀#−∋/(;&,∗/,,#β,0∃(+/,#∗+,#0,+3∃/,/#
)∗−(&∃∋,#∆>?8???#(∗&∋)Υ#1∗(#()#/(#∆#,#Η#,=∋)#/(#07&0(∀Υ#/(%(&Μ,#)(,4∋&8#
Κ∆Ω8Ω8#9,#−(+,#−∋/(;&,∗/,,#β,0∃(+/,#(+#∗+,#0,+3∃/,/#)∗−(&∃∋,#∆>?8???#(∗&∋)#
()#/(#∆#,#Η#,=∋)#/(#07&0(∀#4#/(%(&Μ,#)(,4∋&8#
∋≅ς>8;!Α8!≅8?;Α;>;Β529!≅(]?29!81!81:789?29!Α8!98Β74(Α2Α!:(7Α2Α212Θ!Λϑ!
5656!29Φ9ΚΚ;ΑΙ∋Η9∋Φ∆∋ΩΜ9>:Ε∆∋∆∋;Ι:Ε∆∋=7:9Ι;Η∆
!∀#−&∋0(/∃2∃(+3∋#)(6∗∃/∋# (+#∀,#)(∀(00∃5+#/(#∀,#2∗()3&,#/(−(+/(#∀56∃0,2(+3(#
/(∀# 3,2,=∋# /(# ∀,# 2∗()3&,# /(# −,+(∀∃)3,)# ,# ∃+Ν∃3,&Υ# 1∗(# ∋%Ν∃,2(+3(# /(%(# )( ∀∋#
)∗;∃0∃(+3(2(+3(#6&,+/(#−,&,#+∋#∋%3(+(∗+,#2∗()3&,#∃+;(&∃∋,#∀,#3(5&∃0,#≅+ρν??ΛΥ#
−(&∋#+∋#(ς0()∃Ν,2(+3(# 6&,+/(# −,&,#+∋#∃+0∗&&∃ (+# ∀∋)#0∋)3()#1∗(# 6(+(&,&Μ,# ∗+,#
2∗()3&,#)∗−(&∃∋≅)∋%&(#3∋/∋#(+#∀∋#1∗(#&()−(03,#,∀#−,6∋#/(#∃+0(+3∃Ν∋)Λ8#
Κ,&,#,Τ∗)3,(∀#3,2,=∋#/(#∀,#2∗()3&,#;∃+,∀#,#∀,#2∗()3&,#3(5&∃0,#4#,#∀,)#0∗∋3,)#/(#
)(ς∋#4#(/,/Υ#)(#&(0∗&&∃5#0∋2∋#%,)(#,#∀,)#3,),)#/(#0∋∀,%∋&,0∃5+#/(#∀∋)#−,+(∀∃)3,)#(+#
,+3(&∃∋&()#()3∗/∃∋)#−∋ 6&∗−∋)# /(# )(ς∋# 4# (/,/Υ#4,#1∗(# ()3∋)# 2∗()3&,+# /∃)3∃+3,)#
3,),)#/(#0∋∀,%∋&,0∃5+# 4# −&()(+3,+# ,/(27)#2,4∋ ∋# 2(+∋ &(−&()(+3,0∃5+#(+#(∀#
−,+(∀8#
Κ,&,#(Ν∃3,−,+(∀∃)3,)#/(#∗+#2∃)2∋#:∋6,&Υ#∀,#)(∀(00∃5+#,∀(,3∋&∃,#)(#&(,∀∃
6&∗−∋)# /(# 2,+(&,# )(0∗(+0∃,∀Υ# ()# /(0∃ )(# 0∋2∃(+
−,+(∀∃)3,)#,03∃Ν∋)#γ#0,+/∃/,3∋)#,#∃+Ν∃3,≅Κ8(Τ8# ∀,#2(+∋&,3∃∋#α∗Τ(&()#/(#Ε?#∋# 27)#
,=∋)Υ# ΗΓϑγΗΗ?ρ∆Υ?ΗΛΥ# −&∃∋&∃&∋+# (+# ∀,# ∋∀,#
,+3(&∃∋&Υ#4# ∗+,#Ν( )(∀(00∃∋+,/∋#∗+#−,+(∀∃)3,Υ#%∀∋1∗(,,#3∋/∋)#∀∋)#−,+(∀∃)3,)#/(∀#
2∃)2∋#:∋6,&8#≅Σ,%∀,#νΛ8#
#
#Ζ&6/&%Π3%Ψ#/#−−∀_.%,#%/&%Χ+#)07&%
#
#
Κ,+(∀∃)3,)#,03∃Ν∋)#
,#?∆γ?ϑγ∆ϑ#
α∗()3&,#/(#
∃+Ν∃3,/∋)#,#∋∀,#ϑ#
α∗()3&,#
∋%3(+∃/
,#
(+#∋∀,#ϑ#
β∋2%&(
)#
∆ν#Ξ#>ϑ#,=∋)#
>ΗΗ#
>>?#
ϑ?#
Ω?#,#ΙΙ#,=∋)#
ΙνΙ#
>ΕΙ#
∆?Η#
ΙΗ#,#Ηϑ#,=∋)#
ΙΩϑ#
>ΗΩ#
∆ΩΙ#
Ε?#∋#27)#
ΩϑΕ#
>Η?#
∆∆Ι#
α∗Τ(&()#
∆ν#Ξ#>ϑ#,=∋)#
>Ω>#
∆Γ?#
ΓΓ#
Ω?#,#ΙΙ#,=∋)#
ΕνΗ#
>ΗΩ#
νΩ#
ΙΗ#,#Ηϑ#,=∋)#
ΕΕΙ#
>Ι>#
Γ∆#
Ε?#∋#27)#
ΗΓϑ#
ΗΗ?#
∆ΕΗ#
Σ∋3,∀#
ΩΓΩΙ#
>>?>#
νΩϑ#
#
#
#
#
ΛΚ!∗2Π28>2!⊥;?;≅2Φ;4!,;!
!
56Γ6!(Ε=Κ9>=>∋Η9∋Κ=Ι:∆Κ:=∋9∋;Ι∋
!∀# 3&,%,Τ∋# /(# 0,2−∋# 0∋2(+
0∋2∗+∃0,%,#,#∀∋)#−,+(∀∃)3,)#∀,#∀∀(6,/,#/(#∗+#+∗(Ν∋#0∗()3∃∋+,&∃∋#(∀#>Εγ?ϑγ∆ϑ8#)3,#
∃+0∀∗Μ,#3,2%∃.+#∀,#0∀,Ν(#/(#,00()∋#,∀#0∗()3∃∋+,&∃∋#ΑΞζΠ8#Ξ/(27)#/(#;∗+0∃∋+,∋2∋#
;,03∋/(#,4∗/,#(+#∀,#0∋∀,%∋&,0∃5+#ΑΞζΠΥ#∀∋#:,0(#)∋%&(#3∋/∋#(+#∀,#−&(/∃)−∋)∃0∃5+#,#
&(,∀∃,#−(&)∋+,)#/(#2,4∋(/,/#1∗(#3&,)#∀,#&(0(−0∃5+#/(#∀,#0,&3,#
Ν(2∋)# 0∋2∋# ,∗2(+3,# )∗# 0∋+;∃,+#Κ∋ ∀,# (ς−(&∃(+0∃,#
,/1∗∃&∃/,# (+# ∋∀,)# ,+3(&∃∋&()Υ# (∀# (+ΝΜ∋# /(# 0,&3,)# ()# (;(03∃Ν∋# −,&,# ∃+0&(2(+3, ∀,#
0∋∀,%∋&,0∃5+#/(#−(&)∋+,)# /(#∀,)#1∗(# )(#3∃(+(#(∀#0∋+3,03∋# /∃6∃3,∀Υ#.)3(#()#(&&5+(∋#∋#
0,)∃# +∗+0,# :,+# 0∋∀,%∋&,/∋# −∋ ΑΞζΠΥ# −∋ (∀∀∋Υ# /∃0:,# 0,&3,# )(# (+Ν∃5# ,# ∆8>ΕΕ#
∃+Ν∃3,/∋)Υ#/(#∀∋)#>8>?>#)(∀(00∃∋+,/∋)8#
!∀#>γ∆?γ∆ϑΥ#∗+,#)(2,+,#/()−∗.)#/(∀#(+ΝΜ∋#−∋)3,∀Υ#0∋2(+∀,)#∃+Ν∃3,0∃∋+()#
/(#ΑΞζΠ#,#3&,Ν.)#/(# ∗+#2,∃∀∃+6# (∀(03&5+∃0∋Υ#4#∀,)#∀∀,2,/,)#3(∀(;5+∃0,)# −∋ΑΞΣΠ# ,#
∀∋)#−,+(∀∃)3,)# )∃+# 0∋+3,03∋#/∃6∃3,∀8#Α∋+;∋&2(# )(# ,6∋35#∀,# 0∋∀,%∋&,0∃5+#ΑΞζΠΥ#3&,)#
)∗0()∃Ν∋)#&(0∗(&/∋)#−∋,∃∀∃+6#4#ΒαΒΥ#∀∋)#−,+(∀∃)3,)#0∋+#0∋+3,03∋#/∃6∃3,∀#−,),&∋+#
,#2∋/∋#ΑΞΣΠ# −,&,# &(0∃%∃ ∀∀,2,/,# 3(∀(;5+∃0,Υ#0(&&7+/∋)(# (∀# 3&,%,Τ∋# /(# 0,2−∋#(∀#
?νγ∆∆γ∆ϑ#0∋+#νΩϑ#(+3&(Ν∃)3,)#Ν7∀∃/,)8#
!+#(∀#0,2−∋#ΑΞζΠ#,/(27)#/(#∀,#∃+Ν∃3,0∃5+# −∋(2,∃∀#/(∀#/Μ,# >γ∆?γ∆ϑΥ#,#0,/,#
−,+(∀∃)3,#)(#∀(# −∗/∋# 2,+/, )(6Ψ+#)∗#0∋∀,%∋&,0∃5+# ∋# +∋Υ# :,)3,# Ω#&(0∗(&/∋)#−∋
(2,∃∀Υ#4#>#−∋ΒαΒΥ#)(6Ψ+#(∀#)∃6∗∃(+3(#0&∋+∋6&,2,#≅Σ,%∀,#ϑΛφ#
#
Ζ&6/&%:3%Ξ(/&6(7&−∀_.%ΞηϖΙ%
Ξ00∃5+#/(#0∋+3,03∋#
Κ,+(∀∃)3,)#1∗(#
&(0∃%(+#∀,#,00∃5+#
α∗()3&,#
ΑΞζΠ#
Α∋∀,%∋&,0∃5+#
)∋%&(#
∀∋)#−,+(∀∃)3,)#
1∗(#
:,+#&(0∃%∃/∋#
∀,#,00∃5+#
Π+Ν∃3,0∃5+#0,&3,#
−∋)3,∀#
∆>ΕΕ#
ΩΙ#
>ΥΓ#
Π+Ν∃3,0∃5+#(2,∃∀#
∆∆Γϑ#
>?>#
∆ΓΥ∆#
ΒαΒ#Κ,+(∀∃)3,)#)∃+#
(2,∃∀#
>ϑΗ#
Γ#
>ΥΙ#
∆(&8#_(0∗(&/∋#(2,∃∀#
ϑΓΗ#
Εν#
ΓΥ?#
∋≅ς>8;!Α8!≅8?;Α;>;Β529!≅(]?29!81!81:789?29!Α8!98Β74(Α2Α!:(7Α2Α212Θ!ΛΛ!
ΒαΒ#Κ,+(∀∃)3,)#)∃+#
&()3&∃00∃∋+()#
∆?ΕΩ#
∆∆ν#
∆∆Υ∆#
>/∋8#_(0∗(&/∋#(2,∃∀#
ΓΕΓ#
Γν#
∆?Υ>#
Ω(&8#_(0∗(&/∋#(2,∃∀#
Γ∆Γ#
Η?#
ΓΥ?#
Σ∋3,∀#2∗()3&,#ΑΞζΠφ#ΗΗΓ#
#
!+#0,2−∋#ΑΞΣΠ# )(# 3&,35# /(# 0∋+3,03, 3(∀(;5+∃0,2(+3(#0∋+#∆8Ε>># −,+(∀∃)3,)Υ#
,6&∗−,/∋)#(+# 3&()# &(2(),)Υ#∋%3(+∃(+/∋# ∗+,#2∗()3&,#;∃+,∀# /(#>ν>#(+3&(Ν∃)3,)8#Β(#
∃+∃0∃5#(∀#>γ∆?γ∆ϑ#0∋+#∗+,#−&∃2(&,#&(2(),# /(#−,+(∀∃)3,)#1∗(#0,&(0Μ,+#/(#0∋+3,03∋#
(∀(03&5+∃0∋Υ#)∃(+/∋#.)3∋)# )∋%&(# 3∋/∋# /(#∀∋)#−,+(∀∃)3,)# /(# 2,4∋(/,/#≅Ε?# ∋# 27)#
,=∋)Λ8##
Σ&,)#/(),&&∋∀∀,(∀#0,2−∋# ΑΞζΠΥ# )(# ∃+0∋&−∋&,&∋+# ,# ∀,)#∀∀,2,/,)#/(∀#0,2−∋#
ΑΞΣΠ#/∋)#&(2(),)#27)Υ#∀,#>/,8#&(2(),#0∋2−∗()3,#/(#−,+(∀∃)3,)#)∃+#(2,∃∀Υ#−(&∋#,#∀∋)#
1∗(#−,&,# ΑΞζΠ# )(#2,+/5#∗+# ΒαΒ# (∀#?Ωγ∆?γ>?∆ϑΥ# 4# ∗+,# Ω&,8#&(2(),#,# 3∋/∋)# ∀∋)#
−,+(∀∃)3,)#1∗(#,#−(),/(#:,%()∃/∋#0∋+3,03,/∋)#−∋ΑΞζΠΥ#,#;(0:,#/(#∆Εγ∆?γ>?∆ϑ#
≅Ω(&8#_(0∗(&/∋#/(#(2,∃∀Λ#+∋#:,%Μ,+#0∋∀,%∋&,/∋#≅Σ,%∀,#∆?Λ8##
#
Ζ&6/&983%Ξ(/&6(7&−∀_.%ΞηΖΙ%
η(0:,#
_(2(),)#
Κ,+(∀∃)3,)#
α∗()3&,#
Κ&∃2(&,#
(+3&(Ν∃)3,#
∀3∃2,#
(+3&(Ν∃)3,#
?>γ∆?γ∆ϑ#
∆&,8#
_(2(),#
ΗΓ∆#
∆>Η#
>∆Υϑ#
?>γ∆?γ>?∆ϑ#
∆>φΗΗ#
>Ηγ∆?γ>?∆ϑ#
∆ΓφΗΗ#
∆∆γ∆?γ∆ϑ#
>/,8#
_(2(),#
>ΗΙ#
#
∆?ΥΕ#
∆Ιγ∆?γ>?∆ϑ#
∆?φ>Ω#
>Ωγ∆?γ>?∆ϑ#
>?φΩν#
∆Εγ∆?γ∆ϑ#
Ω&,8#
_(2(),#
ΓϑΓ#
∆Ω?#
∆ΕΥΩ#
∆Εγ∆?γ>?∆ϑ#
∆ΕφΙΙ#
>Εγ∆?γ>?∆ϑ#
∆∆φΩ?#
#Σ∋3,∀#2∗()3&,#ΑΞΣΠφ#>ν>#
#
Ξ#−,&3∃/(∀# ∆∆γ∆?γ∆ϑΥ#)(#)∋∀,−,&∋+# −,+(∀∃)3,)Υ#4,#1∗(#(∀#0,2−∋#ΑΞζΠ#)∃6∗∃5#
,%∃(&3∋Υ# −(&∋# )(# (Ν∃3,&∋+# ∀∋)# /∗−∀∃0,/∋)# ,∀# )( ∗+,# 2∗()3&,# +∋2∃+,∀# 4# 3(+( ∗+#
0∋+3&∋∀# (+# ∀Μ+(,Υ# /,+/∋# /(# %,Τ,# (+# ΑΞΣΠ# 0∗()3∃∋+,&∃∋)# 0(&&,/∋)# (+# ΑΞζΠ8# Β(#
&(,∀∃Ω?# 2,&0,0∃∋+()#≅−&∋2(/∃∋# ΩΥ># −∋ +Ψ2(&∋ΛΥ# −&∃2,+/∋# ∀,)#
&(2,&0,0∃∋+()#(+#∀∋)#6&∗−∋)#2(+∋)#&(−&()(+3,/∋)#(+#ΑΞζΠ8#
ΛΜ!∗2Π28>2!⊥;?;≅2Φ;4!,;!
!
56Ρ6!(9ΕΞ;Φ∋ΩΜ9>:Ε∆Φ∋>9ΛΥΙ∋Ω=Η=∋Η9∋∆ΗΩ;Ι;>:Ε∆Κ;ΑΙ
Α∋2∋#3.0+∃0,#/(#(+0∗()3,0∃5+#(+# ∀,#+∋Ν(+,#∋∀,# /(∀#ΚΞΑΠΒ#0∋+#∀,#3(273∃0,# /(∀#
−∗+∃3∃Ν∃)2∋#0∋2∋#(Τ(#0(+3&,∀Υ#)(#∗3∃∀∀,#(+3&(Ν∃)3,#∋+∀∃+(#≅ΑΞζΠΛ#−,&,#(+3&(Ν∃)3,
,∀# ΕΕΥΙ# /(# ∀∋)# ∃+/∃Ν∃/∗∋)# 1∗(# 0∋2−∋+(+# ∀,# 2∗()3&,Υ# )∃(+/∋# (∀# ΩΩΥΕ# &()3,+3(#
(+3&(Ν∃),/∋)#0∋+#∀,#2∋/,∀∃/,/#3(∀(;5+∃0,Υ#4,#)(,#,#3&,Ν.)#/(#3(∀.;∋+∋#;∃Τ∋#∋#25Ν∃∀8##
9,# −&∋6&,2,0∃5+# /(∀# 0∗()3∃∋+,&∃∋# ∋+∀∃+(# (ς∃6∃5# ,Τ∗)3,&∀∋# −,&,# ;,0∃∀∃3, )∗#
Ν∃)∗,∀∃≅3,%∀(3,)Υ#3(∀.;∋+∋)#25Ν∃∀()#4#∋&/(+,/∋&()Λ#
;,0∃∀∃3,+/∋#)∗#∀(03∗&,#,#∀∋)# (+3&(Ν∃)3,/∋)8#Σ,2%∃.+#)(#&(,∀∃ 6&,+#();∗(&/(#
(1∗∃−,&,0∃5+# (+# ∀∋)# 0∗()3∃∋+,&∃∋)# ∋+∀∃+(# 4# 3(∀(;5+∃0∋)Υ# /(# 2∋/∋# 1∗(# +∋# :∗%∃(&,#
Ν,&∃,0∃5+#(+#∀∋)#;∋&2,3∋)#(+#,2%,)#2∋/,∀∃/,/()#/(#,−∀∃0,0∃5+8#
9,#2∗()3&,#/(#()3∗/∃∋#()37#0∋2−∗()3,#−∋∗+#Η>Υν#/(#:∋2%&()#4#∗+#ΙΓΥ>#
/(#2∗Τ(&()8#!+#0∗,+3∋#,∀#)(ς∋#/(#∀∋)#−,&3∃0∃−,+3()#(+#()3,#+∋Ν(+,#∋∀,#,3(+/∃(+/∋#,#
∀,# 2∋/,∀∃/,/# /(# (+0∗()3,0∃5+Υ# (∀# Ε?ΥΩ# /(# ∀∋)# :∋2%&()# (+3&(Ν∃)3,/∋)# ∀∋#
0∗2−∀∃2(+3,&∋+#(+# (∀#2∋/∋# ∋+∀∃+(#4# (∀#ΩΓΥϑ# 3(∀(;5+∃0,2(+3(8#9,# 2∋/,∀∃/,/#/(#
(+3&(Ν∃)3,#−,&,#∀,)#2∗Τ(&()#()#/(#ΩϑΥΓ#(+#(∀#2∋/∋#∋+∀∃+(#4#Ε>Υ∆#(∀#3(∀(;5+∃0∋8#Β(#
−∗(/(# ∋%)(&Ν, ∗+# ,∀3∋# −∋&0(+3,Τ(# /(# 2∗Τ(&()# (+# ∀,# 2∋/,∀∃/,/# 3(∀(;5+∃0,# /(#
(+0∗()3,0∃5+#1∗(# 1∗(/,#(ς−∀∃0,/,#,3(+/∃(+/∋#,#∀,# (/,/#4# (∀#+∃Ν(∀# (/∗0,3∃Ν∋#/(#∀,#
−∋%∀,0∃5+#2,4∋/(#Ε?#,=∋)8#9,#%&(0:,#3(0+∋∀56∃0,#6(+(&,0∃∋+,∀#)(#−∗(/(#,−&(0∃,
(+#∀,#2∗()3&,#/(#+∗()3&∋#()3∗/∃∋#∋%)(&Ν,+/∋#∀,#3,%∀,#∆8##
#
Ζ&6/&%993%ϕ(,(%,#%&,Χ∀.∀)07&−∀_.%,#%−+#)0∀(.&7∀(%)#∗Τ.%)#⊥(%]%#,&,%
#
##
α∋/,∀∃/,/#/(#(+0∗()3,0∃5+#
ΑΞζΠ#
ΑΞΣΠ#
β∋2%&(#
α∗Τ(&#
β∋2%&(#
α∗Τ(&#
χ&∗−∋#/(#
(/,/#
Ρ(#∆ν#,# >ϑ#
,=∋)#
>>Υϑ#
>ϑΥΙ#
∆>Υ∆#
ΕΥϑ#
Ρ(#Ω?#,# ΙΙ#
,=∋)#
>ΗΥϑ#
>ΕΥΓ#
∆ΕΥν#
∆ΩΥΓ#
Ρ(#ΙΗ#,# Ηϑ#
,=∋)#
Ω∆Υ?#
∆ϑΥϑ#
>νΥ?#
∆ΗΥΙ#
Ρ(#Ε?# ,=∋)#
∋#27)#
>?Υ>#
>ΙΥ?#
ΙΩΥ?#
ΕΙΥ?#
Σ∋3,∀#
∆??Υ?#
∆??Υ?#
∆??Υ?#
∆??Υ?#
#
Ξ3(+/∃(+/∋# ,∀# 2∋/∋# /(# ,/2∃+∃)3&,0∃5+# )(# ∋%)(&Ν,#1∗(# /∋+/(# 27)# 27)# )(#
0∋+0(+3&,#∀,# (+3&(Ν∃)3,#3(∀(;5+∃0,#()#(+3&(#(∀# 6&∗−∋#/(# (+3&(Ν∃)3,/∋)#/(# Ε?#∋#27)#
,=∋)Υ#)∃(+/∋#2,4∋(∀#−∋&0(+3,Τ(#/(#2∗Τ(&()#&(−&()(+3,/,)#(+#()3(#3&,2∋#/(#(/,/#
≅ΕΙ# 2∗Τ(&()# 4# ΙΩ# :∋2%&()Λ8# !∀# &()3∋# /(# −∋%∀,0∃5+# 2∗()3&(,/,# ∋;&(0(#
∋≅ς>8;!Α8!≅8?;Α;>;Β529!≅(]?29!81!81:789?29!Α8!98Β74(Α2Α!:(7Α2Α212Θ!ΛΝ!
−∋&0(+3,Τ()#2(+∋&()#,∀# >ν#(+#3∋/∋)# ∀∋)#0,)∋)8#!∀# :(0:∋#/(#,∗2(+3,∀,#2∗()3&,#
ΑΞΣΠ#(+#(∀#3&,2∋#/(#(/,/#1∗(#0∋2−&(+/(#,#∀∋)#2,4∋&()#/(#Ε?#,=∋)Υ#,/(27)#/(#−∋
(Ν∃3, ∀,# %&(0:,# /∃6∃3,∀Υ# )(# :,0(# −,&,# 1∗(# ()3(# 6&∗−∋# 3(+6,# &(−&()(+3,0∃5+# &(,∀Υ#
−∗()3∋#1∗(# ∀,# 2∗()3&,#∋%3(+∃/,#−∋ ΑΞζΠ# +∋#)∗(∀(# &(−&()(+3, 0∋+#(ς,03∃3∗/# (∀#
+∃Ν(∀# (/∗0,3∃Ν∋# (+# ()3(# 3&,2∋# /(# (/,/# ,−,&(0∃(+/∋# +∃Ν(∀()# (/∗0,3∃Ν∋)# ,∀3∋)#
≅()3∗/∃∋)#)∗−(&∃∋&()Λ#+∋#&(;∀(Τ,+/∋#;∃(∀2(+3(#∀,#&(,∀∃/,/#−∋%∀,0∃∋+,∀8#
8∀!1%
Α∋2∋#)(# :,#−∋/∃/∋#0∋2−&∋%, ,#3&,Ν.)# /(#()3,)#−76∃+,)# &()∗∀3,#)∗2,2(+3(#
−&703∃0∋#(∀#∗)∋#/(#2(3∋/∋∀∋6Μ,)#2∃ς3,)#−,&,#,00(/(,#,1∗(∀∀,#−,&3(#/(#∀,#−∋%∀,0∃5+#
+∋# ∗)∗,&∃,# /(# +∗(Ν,)# 3(0+∋∀∋6Μ,)# ≅Π+3(&+(3Λ8# # 9∋)# /,3∋)# ,+,∀∃
0∋+;∃&2,+Υ#)∃+∋#1∗(# /(2∗()3&,+#052∋#(∀#∗)∋#0∋2%∃+,/∋# /(#2(3∋/∋∀∋6Μ,)#2(Τ∋&,#
∀∋)#&()∗∀3,/∋)#4#(Ν∃3,#)()6∋)#(+#∀,)#2∗()3&,)#∋%3(+∃/,)Υ#∃+0∀∗)∋# −,&,#(∀#()3∗/∃∋#/(#
3(2,)#3,+# 0∋2−&∋2(3∃/∋)#−,&,# ∀,# −∋%∀,0∃5+#0∋2∋# ∀∋#)∋+# ∀∋)# &(∀,0∃∋+,/∋)#0∋+# ∀,#
)(6∗&∃/,/#0∃∗/,/,+,8##
#
Ε8ΕΑ8+
ΞΟ!ΠαΧ# ≅>?∆ϑΛ8# :∗&∋∀( 0∃+( ∀∃%&∋/( κΑηρ8# _(0∗−(&,/∋# /(#
:33−φγγιιι8,+(∃2∋80∋2γ/,3∋)Φ/(∀Φ)(03∋&γ#
Α,∀∀(6,&∋Υ# α8Υ# µ,λ(&Υ# _8Κ8Υ# µ(3:∀(:(2Υ# κ8Υ# χ&∃3
≅(/)8Λ#≅>?∆ΙΛ8#ν,+),∃(Θ∗,∃+(Σ∃∀∃∗/%Ν⊥(!(:∗&∗(α.∗+)&5(Θ∃/∀#∃%&)8∃8#β∋%∋λ(+Υ#Ο(ι#
κ(&)(4φ#κ∋:+#ζ∃∀(4#ξ#Β∋+)8#
Α,∀∀(6,&∋Υ# α8Υ# α,+;&(/,Υ# ε898# 4# ϕ(:∋Ν,&Υ# ϕ8# ≅>?∆ΗΛ8# δ∃6( ?./8∃5( >∃&Ν∋0∋+∋−58#
9∋+/∋+φ#ΒΞχ!8#
χ&∋Ν()Υ#_∋%(&3#α8#≅>?∆∆Λ8#Σ:&((#!&,)#∋;#Β∗&Ν(4#_()(,&0:8#Θ.6+)%(ν#),)∋,(α.∗/&∃/+5#
Υ#ΓΗ≅ΗΛφνΕ∆ΦΓ∆8#
Σ∗0λ(&Υ# Α8# 4# 9(−λ∋ι)λ∃Υ# κ8α8# ≅>??ΓΛ8# Σ(∀(−:∋+(# Β∗&Ν(4# α(3:∋/)φ# Ξ/,−3∃+6# 3∋#
Α:,+6(8#!+#9(−λ∋ι)λ∃Υ# κ8α8Υ# Σ∗0λ(&Υ# Α8Υ# µ&∃0λΥ#κ8α8Υ#Ρ(# 9((∗ιΥ# !8Ρ8Υ# κ,−(0Υ# 98Υ#
9,Ν&,λ,)Υ#Κ8κ8Υ#9∃+λΥ#α8ζ8#4# Β,+6)3(&Υ#_898#≅(/)8Λ# !08∗,%∃∀(),( Τ∃+∃#Ν∋,∃(?./8∃5(
>∃&Ν∋0∋+∋−5##≅−−8#ΩΦ>ΕΛ8#β∋%∋λ(+Υ#Ο(ι#κ(&)(4φ#κ∋:+#ζ∃∀(4#ξ#Β∋+)#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

Para continuar leyendo

Solicita tu prueba

VLEX utiliza cookies de inicio de sesión para aportarte una mejor experiencia de navegación. Si haces click en 'Aceptar' o continúas navegando por esta web consideramos que aceptas nuestra política de cookies. ACEPTAR